The Raman optical radar measurements of the atmosphere presented demonstrate that the technique may be used to obtain quantitative measurements of the spatial distribution of individual atmospheric molecular trace constituents, in particular water vapor, as well as those of the major constituents. In addition, it is shown that monitoring Raman signals from atmospheric nitrogen aids in interpreting elastic scattering measurements by eliminating attenuation effects. In general, the experimental results show good agreement with independent meteorological measurements. Finally, experimental data are utilized to estimate the Raman backscatter cross section for water vapor excited at 3471.5 Å as σH2O/σN2 = 3.8 ± 25%.
S. H. Melfi, "Remote Measurements of the Atmosphere Using Raman Scattering," Appl. Opt. 11, 1605-1610 (1972)