The use of the twos complement binary representation in performing matrix–matrix multiplication using an optical engagement array architecture is presented. Twos complement arithmetic offers a convenient means for handling bipolar numbers, avoids the need for matrix partitioning when the matrices are real, and offers a means to improve accuracy over conventional optical analog techniques.
R. P. Bocker, S. R. Clayton, and K. Bromley, "Electrooptical matrix multiplication using the twos complement arithmetic for improved accuracy," Appl. Opt. 22, 2019-2021 (1983)