A matrix method is developed for calculating the heterodyne efficiency of an optical receiver, taking into account the local oscillator field distribution, the receiving optics, and the atmospheric turbulence. The heterodyne efficiency in a circular symmetric receiver is given by a product of several matrices, each representing one of the optical parameters of the system, such as defocusing, Fresnel number of the optical system, central obscuration, or atmospheric coherence radius.
© 1983 Optical Society of America
J. Salzman and A. Katzir, "Signal-to-noise ratio of heterodyne detection: matrix formalism," Appl. Opt. 22, 888-890 (1983)