Multi-kilo-electron-volt x-ray microscopy will be an important laser-produced plasma diagnostic at future megajoule facilities such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF). However, laser energies and plasma characteristics imply that x-ray microscopy will be more challenging at NIF than at existing facilities. We use analytical estimates and numerical ray tracing to investigate several instrumentation options in detail, and we conclude that near-normal-incidence single spherical or toroidal crystals may offer the best general solution for high-energy x-ray microscopy at NIF and similar large facilities. Apertured Kirkpatrick–Baez microscopes using multilayer mirrors may also be good options, particularly for applications requiring one-dimensional imaging over narrow fields of view.
© 1998 Optical Society of America
Jeffrey A. Koch, Otto L. Landen, Troy W. Barbee, Peter Celliers, Luiz B. Da Silva, Sharon G. Glendinning, Bruce A. Hammel, Dan H. Kalantar, Charles Brown, John Seely, Guy R. Bennett, and Warren Hsing, "High-Energy X-ray Microscopy Techniques for Laser-Fusion Plasma Research at the National Ignition Facility," Appl. Opt. 37, 1784-1795 (1998)