OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 37, Iss. 12 — Apr. 20, 1998
  • pp: 2245–2259

Relative importance of multiple scattering by air molecules and aerosols in forming the atmospheric path radiance in the visible and near-infrared parts of the spectrum

David Antoine and André Morel  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 37, Issue 12, pp. 2245-2259 (1998)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (639 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Single and multiple scattering by molecules or by atmospheric aerosols only (homogeneous scattering), and heterogeneous scattering by aerosols and molecules, are recorded in Monte Carlo simulations. It is shown that heterogeneous scattering (1) always contributes significantly to the path reflectance (ρpath), (2) is realized at the expense of homogeneous scattering, (3) decreases when aerosols are absorbing, and (4) introduces deviations in the spectral dependencies of reflectances compared with the Rayleigh exponent and the aerosol angstrom exponent. The ratio of ρpath to the Rayleigh reflectance for an aerosol-free atmosphere is linearly related to the aerosol optical thickness. This result provides a basis for a new scheme for atmospheric correction of remotely sensed ocean color observations.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.0010) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric and oceanic optics
(010.1100) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Aerosol detection
(010.1310) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric scattering
(010.4450) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Oceanic optics
(290.1090) Scattering : Aerosol and cloud effects
(290.4210) Scattering : Multiple scattering
(290.5850) Scattering : Scattering, particles
(290.5870) Scattering : Scattering, Rayleigh

Original Manuscript: July 11, 1997
Revised Manuscript: November 17, 1997
Published: April 20, 1998

David Antoine and André Morel, "Relative importance of multiple scattering by air molecules and aerosols in forming the atmospheric path radiance in the visible and near-infrared parts of the spectrum," Appl. Opt. 37, 2245-2259 (1998)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. H. R. Gordon, “Removal of atmospheric effects from satellite imagery of the oceans,” Appl. Opt. 17, 1631–1636 (1978). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Viollier, D. Tanré, P. Y. Deschamps, “An algorithm for remote sensing of water color from space,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 247–267 (1980). [CrossRef]
  3. H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, R. H. Evans, “Exact Rayleigh scattering calculations for use with the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner,” Appl. Opt. 27, 862–871 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. Y. Deschamps, M. Herman, D. Tanré, “Modeling of the atmospheric effects and its application to the remote sensing of ocean color,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3751–3758 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. R. Gordon, D. J. Castaño, “Aerosol analysis with the Coastal Zone Color Scanner: a simple method for including multiple scattering effects,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1320–1326 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving reflectance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWIFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Jayaraman, P. Koepke, “Accounting for the multiple scattering effect in radiation intensities at the top of the atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3473–3480 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison of ship determinations and CZCS estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters: its dependence on Sun angle as influenced by the molecular scattering contribution,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4427–4438 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. II. Bidirectional aspects,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6864–6879 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, R. H. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. H. R. Gordon, D. J. Castaño, “Coastal Zone Color Scanner atmospheric correction algorithm: multiple scattering effects,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2111–2122 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. A. Selby, F. E. Voltz, J. S. Garing, “Optical properties of the atmosphere,” AFCRL 71-0279, environmental research paper 354 (U.S. Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass., 1971).
  14. L. Elterman, “UV, visible, and IR attenuation for altitudes to 50 km,” AFCRL-68-0153, environmental research paper 285 (U.S. Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass., 1968).
  15. E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” AFGL-TR-79-0214, environmental research paper 676 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1979).
  16. World Climate Research Program 112, “A preliminary cloudless standard atmosphere for radiation computation,” WMO/TD-24 (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1986).
  17. H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth observing system era,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,081–17,106 (1997). [CrossRef]
  18. P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Bréon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, G. Sèze, “The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598–615 (1994). [CrossRef]
  19. S. Saitoh, “OCTS on ADEOS,” in Oceanographic Application of Remote Sensing, M. Ikeda, F. W. Dobson, eds. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995), pp. 473–480.
  20. S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, An Overview of SeaWIFS and Ocean Color, Vol. 1 of tech. rep. series NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA Greenbelt Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., July1992).
  21. M. Rast, J. L. Bézy, “The ESA medium resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS): requirements to its mission and performance of its system,” in RSS95, Remote Sensing in Action, Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference of the Remote Sensing Society, P. J. Curran, Y. C. Robertson , eds. (Taylor & Francis, London, 1995), pp. 125–132.
  22. A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977). [CrossRef]
  23. K. Ding, H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean-color sensors: effects of the Earth’s curvature,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7096–7106 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited