An equation to predict the intensity of the multiply scattered lidar return is presented. Both the scattering cross section and the scattering phase function can be specified as a function of range. This equation applies when the cloud particles are larger than the lidar wavelength. This approximation considers photon trajectories with multiple small-angle forward-scattering events and one large-angle scattering that directs the photon back toward the receiver. Comparisons with Monte Carlo simulations, exact double-scatter calculations, and lidar data demonstrate that this model provides accurate results.
© 1998 Optical Society of America
Edwin W. Eloranta, "Practical Model for the Calculation of Multiply Scattered Lidar Returns," Appl. Opt. 37, 2464-2472 (1998)