The properties of convex gratings fabricated by electron-beam lithography are investigated. Three grating types are shown. The first is a single-panel, true blazed grating in which the blaze angle stays constant relative to the local surface normal. This grating provides high peak efficiencies of approximately 88% in the first order and 85% in the second order. The second grating has two concentric panels, with each panel blazed at a different angle. This type permits flexibility in matching the grating response to a desired form. The third type has a groove shape that departs from the sawtooth blazed profile to increase the second-order bandwidth. All these types are difficult or impossible to produce with conventional techniques. The gratings compare favorably with conventional (holographic and ruled) types in terms of efficiency and scatter. Simple scalar models are shown to predict the wavelength response accurately. These gratings allow the optical designer to realize fully the considerable advantages of concentric spectrometer forms.
© 1998 Optical Society of America
(050.1940) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction
(050.1950) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction gratings
(050.2770) Diffraction and gratings : Gratings
(120.6200) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Spectrometers and spectroscopic instrumentation
(220.4000) Optical design and fabrication : Microstructure fabrication
Pantazis Mouroulis, Daniel W. Wilson, Paul D. Maker, and Richard E. Muller, "Convex Grating Types for Concentric Imaging Spectrometers," Appl. Opt. 37, 7200-7208 (1998)