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Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 37, Iss. 32 — Nov. 10, 1998
  • pp: 7514–7522

UV Microstereolithography System that uses Spatial Light Modulator Technology

Chris Chatwin, Maria Farsari, Shiping Huang, Malcolm Heywood, Philip Birch, Rupert Young, and John Richardson  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 37, Issue 32, pp. 7514-7522 (1998)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.37.007514


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Abstract

A new stereophotolithography technique utilizing a spatial light modulator (SLM) to create three-dimensional components with a planar, layer-by-layer process of exposure is described. With this procedure it is possible to build components with dimensions in the range of 50 μm–50 mm and feature sizes as small as 5 μm with a resolution of 1 μm. A polysilicon thin-film twisted nematic SVGA SLM is used as the dynamic photolithographic mask. The system consists of eight elements: a UV laser light source, an optical shutter, beam-conditioning optics, a SLM, a multielement reduction lens system, a high-resolution translation stage, a control system, and a computer-aided-design system. Each of these system components is briefly described. In addition, the optical characteristics of commercially available UV curable resins are investigated with nondegenerate four-wave mixing. Holographic gratings were written at a wavelength of 351.1 nm and read at 632.8 nm to compare the reactivity, curing speed, shrinkage, and resolution of the resins. These experiments were carried out to prove the suitability of these photopolymerization systems for microstereolithography.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.1970) Diffraction and gratings : Diffractive optics
(110.3960) Imaging systems : Microlithography
(130.0250) Integrated optics : Optoelectronics
(230.6120) Optical devices : Spatial light modulators
(260.5130) Physical optics : Photochemistry
(300.2570) Spectroscopy : Four-wave mixing

Citation
Chris Chatwin, Maria Farsari, Shiping Huang, Malcolm Heywood, Philip Birch, Rupert Young, and John Richardson, "UV Microstereolithography System that uses Spatial Light Modulator Technology," Appl. Opt. 37, 7514-7522 (1998)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-37-32-7514


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References

  1. C. R. Chatwin, R. C. D. Young, M. I. Heywood, S. Huang, and M. Farsari, “Manufacture of fully three-dimensional micro-components,” Tech. Rep. RAP/PR/SUS/EPSRC971102, EPSRC grant GR/L31814 (University of Sussex, Brighton, UK, November 1997), pp. 1–27.
  2. P. F. Jacobs, Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing: Fundamentals of Stereolithography (Society of Manufacturing Engineers, Dearborn, Mich., 1992).
  3. C. Soutar and L. Kanghua, “Determination of the physical properties of an arbitrary twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2704–2712 (1994).
  4. M. Hunziker and P. Bernhard, “Development of resin systems for stereolithography: holographic cure monitoring,” in Proceedings of the First National Conference on Rapid Prototyping, Dayton, Ohio (1990), pp. 79–85.
  5. C. Braüchle and D. M. Burland, “Holographic methods for the investigation of photochemical and photophysical properties of molecules,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 22, 582–598 (1983).
  6. C. Carré, D. J. Lougnot, and J. P. Fouassier, “Holography as a tool for mechanistic and kinetic studies of photopolymerization reactions—a theoretical and experimental approach,” Macromolecules 22, 791–799 (1989).
  7. H. Kogelnik, “Coupled-wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell. Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).
  8. S. Bains, “Four million pixels sharpen color display,” Laser Focus World 33(12), 19–20 (1997).

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