OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 37, Iss. 34 — Dec. 1, 1998
  • pp: 8021–8029

Phase effects owing to multilayer coatings in a two-mirror extreme-ultraviolet Schwarzschild objective

Edita Tejnil, Kenneth A. Goldberg, and Jeffrey Bokor  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 37, Issue 34, pp. 8021-8029 (1998)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.37.008021


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (2845 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

The aberrations of a multilayer-coated reflective Schwarzschild objective, which are influenced both by mirror surface profiles and by multilayer coatings, are evaluated with a phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer operating in the extreme ultraviolet. Using wave-front measurements at multiple wavelengths near 13.4 nm, we observed chromatic aberrations and wavelength-dependent transmission changes that were due to molybdenum–silicon multilayer coatings. The effects of chromatic vignetting due to limited multilayer reflection passbands on the imaging performance of the Schwarzschild optic are considered. The coating characteristics extracted from the interferometry data on the two-mirror optical system are compared with previously reported coating properties measured on individual mirror substrates.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry
(120.5050) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Phase measurement
(230.4040) Optical devices : Mirrors
(230.4170) Optical devices : Multilayers
(260.7200) Physical optics : Ultraviolet, extreme

History
Original Manuscript: February 2, 1998
Revised Manuscript: April 27, 1998
Published: December 1, 1998

Citation
Edita Tejnil, Kenneth A. Goldberg, and Jeffrey Bokor, "Phase effects owing to multilayer coatings in a two-mirror extreme-ultraviolet Schwarzschild objective," Appl. Opt. 37, 8021-8029 (1998)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-37-34-8021


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. H. Medecki, E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “A phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1526–1528 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, “At-wavelength interferometry for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455–2461 (1997). [CrossRef]
  3. K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, D. T. Attwood, K. H. Jackson, J. Bokor, “Characterization of an EUV Schwarzschild objective using phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies, D. E. Seeger, ed., Proc. SPIE3048, 264–70 (1997). [CrossRef]
  4. J. H. Underwood, “Reflecting multilayer coatings for EUV projection lithography,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, G. D. Kubiak, D. R. Kania, eds., Vol. 4 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 162–166.
  5. D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, “Multilayer facilities required for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 3826–3832 (1994). [CrossRef]
  6. D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, G. D. Kubiak, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, R. H. Stulen, P. H. Paul, R. W. Arling, T. E. Jewell, E. Tejnil, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “10× reduction imaging at 13.4 nm,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, F. Zernike, D. T. Attwood, eds., Vol. 23 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 89–97.
  7. J. E. Grievenkamp, J. H. Bruning, “Phase-shifting interferometry,” in Optical Shop Testing, 2nd ed., D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1992), pp. 501–598.
  8. R. Soufli, E. M. Gullikson, “Reflectance measurements on clean surfaces for the determination of optical constants in the EUV/soft X-ray region,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5499–5507 (1997); B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. E. Jewell, “Effect of amplitude and phase dispersion on images in multilayer-coated soft-x-ray projection systems,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, J. Bokor, ed., Vol. 12 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 113–118.
  10. J. H. Underwood, T. W. Barbee, “Layered synthetic microstructures as Bragg diffractors for x rays and extreme ultraviolet: theory and predicted performance,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3027–3034 (1981). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. E. Spiller, Soft X-Ray Optics (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1994), Chap. 7. [CrossRef]
  12. V. G. Kohn, “On the theory of reflectivity by an x-ray multilayer mirror,” Phys. Status Solidi B 187, 61–70 (1995). [CrossRef]
  13. A. Caticha, “Reflection and transmission of x rays by graded interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 9214–9223 (1995). [CrossRef]
  14. D. L. Windt, R. Hull, W. K. Waskiewicz, “Interface imperfections in metal/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2675–2678 (1992). [CrossRef]
  15. D. L. Windt, Bell Laboratories, Room 1D-456, 700 Mountain Avenue, Murray Hill, N.J. 07974 (personal communication, September1997).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited