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Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 37, Iss. 34 — Dec. 1, 1998
  • pp: 8057–8066

Influence of fabrication errors on Wölter mirror imaging performance

Katsumi Sugisaki, Shin-ich Takahashi, Yasuji Yoshidomi, Kuninori Shinada, Osamu Mitomi, Eishiro Uchishiba, Ryuji Hamada, Tokio Kato, and Sadao Aoki  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 37, Issue 34, pp. 8057-8066 (1998)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.37.008057


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Abstract

The resolution of the Wölter mirror, which is utilized as an objective in soft-x-ray microscopes, is limited by fabrication errors. We studied the relation between fabrication errors and imaging performance of the Wölter mirror to determine how this performance could be improved. Figure errors, which are characterized by low spatial frequency, were analyzed by ray tracing, and surface roughness, characterized by high spatial frequency, was analyzed by modified ray tracing. Modified ray tracing was based on ray tracing but took scattering into account. The results of these analyses were compared with experimental data. As a result, we obtained a simple and practical fabricating tolerance criterion that may be employed to obtain higher Wölter mirror resolution. Additionally, we discuss problems in current Wölter mirror fabrication techniques and the changes that might be made in both the design and the fabrication process to improve imaging performance.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(110.7440) Imaging systems : X-ray imaging
(220.0220) Optical design and fabrication : Optical design and fabrication
(290.5880) Scattering : Scattering, rough surfaces
(340.0340) X-ray optics : X-ray optics
(340.7460) X-ray optics : X-ray microscopy
(340.7470) X-ray optics : X-ray mirrors

History
Original Manuscript: February 5, 1998
Revised Manuscript: July 27, 1998
Published: December 1, 1998

Citation
Katsumi Sugisaki, Shin-ich Takahashi, Yasuji Yoshidomi, Kuninori Shinada, Osamu Mitomi, Eishiro Uchishiba, Ryuji Hamada, Tokio Kato, and Sadao Aoki, "Influence of fabrication errors on Wölter mirror imaging performance," Appl. Opt. 37, 8057-8066 (1998)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-37-34-8057


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