Existence of a wafer axial dependency in the activation energy (<i>E</i><sub>a</sub>) for the dc-drift of LiNbO<sub>3</sub> modulators has been experimentally found. The <i>E</i><sub>a</sub> for the x-cut modulators is derived to be 0.2~0.5 eV, and 1 eV for the z-cut ones.
© 1998 Optical Society of America
Naoki Mitsugi, Kazumasa Kiuchi, and Hirotoshi Nagata, "Activation Energy for Dc-drift in X-cut LiNbO3 Optical Intensity Modulators," Appl. Opt. 37, 8147-8149 (1998)