OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 37, Iss. 4 — Feb. 1, 1998
  • pp: 691–697

Determination of Optical Constants of Solgel-Derived Inhomogeneous TiO2 Thin Films by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry and Transmission Spectroscopy

Md. Mosaddeq-ur-Rahman, Guolin Yu, Kalaga Murali Krishna, Tetsuo Soga, Junji Watanabe, Takashi Jimbo, and Masayoshi Umeno  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 37, Issue 4, pp. 691-697 (1998)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (188 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Amorphous and nanocrystalline TiO<sub>2</sub> thin films coated on a vitreous silica substrate by a solgel dip coating method are investigated for optical properties by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) together with transmission spectroscopy. A method of analysis of SE data to determine the degree of inhomogeneity of TiO<sub>2</sub> films has also been presented. Instead of the refractive index, the volume fraction of void has been assumed to vary along the thickness of the films and an excellent agreement between the experimental and calculated data of SE below the fundamental band gap has been obtained. The transmission spectrum of these samples is inverted to obtain the extinction coefficient <i>k</i> spectrum in the wavelength range of 300–1600 nm by using the refractive indices and parameters of structure determined by SE. The nonzero extinction coefficient below the fundamental band-gap energy (3.2 eV) has been obtained for the nanocrystalline TiO<sub>2</sub> and shows the presence of optical scattering in the film.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(260.2130) Physical optics : Ellipsometry and polarimetry
(310.0310) Thin films : Thin films
(310.6860) Thin films : Thin films, optical properties

Md. Mosaddeq-ur-Rahman, Guolin Yu, Kalaga Murali Krishna, Tetsuo Soga, Junji Watanabe, Takashi Jimbo, and Masayoshi Umeno, "Determination of Optical Constants of Solgel-Derived Inhomogeneous TiO2 Thin Films by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry and Transmission Spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 37, 691-697 (1998)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset


  1. M. Gratzel, “Nanocrystalline electronic junctions,” in Semiconductor Nanoclusters–Physical, Chemical and Catalytic Aspects, P. V. Kamat and D. Meisel, eds. (Elsevier, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 353–461.
  2. J. M. Bennett, E. Pelletier, G. Albrand, J. P. Borgogno, B. Lazarides, C. K. Carniglia, R. A. Schmell, T. H. Allen, T. Tuttle-Hart, K. H. Guenther, and A. Saxer, “Comparison of the properties of titanium dioxide films prepared by various techniques,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3303–3316 (1989).
  3. G. Parjadis de Lariviere, J. M. Frigerio, J. Rivory, and F. Abeles, “Estimate of the degree of inhomogeneity of the refractive index of dielectric films from spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6059–6061 (1992).
  4. J. P. Borgogno, F. Flory, P. Roche, B. Schmitt, G. Albrand, E. Pelletier, and H. A. Macleod, “Refractive index and inhomogeneity of thin films,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3567–3570 (1984).
  5. A. R. Forouhi and I. Bloomer, “Calculation of optical constants, n and k, in the interband region,” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II, E. D. Palik, ed. (Academic, Toronto, 1991), Chap. 7.
  6. S. Y. Kim, “Simultaneous determination of refractive index, extinction coefficient, and void distribution of titanium dioxide thin film by optical methods,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6703–6707 (1996).
  7. M. M. Rahman, T. Miki, K. M. Krishna, T. Soga, K. Igarashi, S. Tanemura, and M. Umeno, “Structural and optical characterization of PbxTi1−xO2 film prepared by solgel method,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 41, 67–71 (1996).
  8. C. K. Carniglia, “Ellipsometric calculations for nonabsorbing thin films with linear refractive-index gradients,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 848–856 (1990).
  9. D. E. Aspnes and J. B. Theeten, “Investigation of effective-medium models of microscopic surface roughness by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Phy. Rev. B 20, 3292–3302 (1979).
  10. T. Gerfin and M. Gratzel, “Optical properties of tin-doped indium oxide determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1722–1729 (1996).
  11. K. A. Vorotilov, E. V. Orlova, and V. I. Petrovsky, “Solgel TiO2 films on silicon substrates,” Thin Solid Films 207, 180–184 (1992).
  12. T. M. Susan, J. Chen, K. Vedam, and R. E. Newnham, “In situ annealing studies of solgel ferroelectric thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 1907–1913 (1995).
  13. Y. Mishima, M. Takei, T. Uematsu, N. Matsumoto, T. Kakehi, U. Wakino, and M. Okabe, “Polycrystalline silicon formed by ultrahigh-vacuum sputtering system,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 217–223 (1995).
  14. H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters (Adam Hilger, Bristol, UK, 1986).
  15. M. H. Suhail, G. M. Rao, and S. Mohan, “dc reactive magnetron sputtering of titanium-structural and optical characterization of TiO2 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1421–1427 (1992).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited