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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 37, Iss. 9 — Mar. 20, 1998
  • pp: 1435–1440

Halo arcs from airborne, pyramidal ice crystals falling with their c axes in vertical orientation

Marko Pekkola, Marko Riikonen, Jarmo Moilanen, and Jukka Ruoskanen  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 37, Issue 9, pp. 1435-1440 (1998)

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Many halo arcs are caused by pyramidal crystals that have {1 0 -1 1} crystal faces. We treat halo arcs arising from pyramidal crystals that fall in the air with their c axes vertically oriented. To our knowledge only 6 of the 12 possible halo phenomena that belong to this category have been dealt with in the literature. Surprisingly the yet undiscussed halos are predicted to be of comparable intensity with those already treated. They are produced by reflections from pyramidal crystal basal faces. A theoretical summary and computer simulations are presented of the mentioned 12 halo phenomena and of the individual arcs into which they break in the sky. We give an overview to the current level of documentation of these phenomena by listing the first published photographs of each phenomenon known to the authors.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.1290) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric optics
(010.2940) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Ice crystal phenomena

Original Manuscript: June 20, 1997
Revised Manuscript: October 21, 1997
Published: March 20, 1998

Marko Pekkola, Marko Riikonen, Jarmo Moilanen, and Jukka Ruoskanen, "Halo arcs from airborne, pyramidal ice crystals falling with their c axes in vertical orientation," Appl. Opt. 37, 1435-1440 (1998)

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  11. The extension of the word parhelia to ascribe arcs associated with odd radius halos was introduced by Tape in 1994 (Ref. 7). For convenience we apply the same term in this paper.
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