OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 38, Iss. 10 — Apr. 1, 1999
  • pp: 1920–1925

Normal-incidence efficiencies of 4800-grooves/mm-ruled replica gratings with multilayer and gold coatings in the 125–325-Å wavelength region

John F. Seely, Tetsuya Watanabe, Tatsuo Harada, Jack C. Rife, and William R. Hunter  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 38, Issue 10, pp. 1920-1925 (1999)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.38.001920


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (162 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

The normal-incidence efficiencies of two 4800-grooves/mm ruled replica gratings, one with a dual-bandpass molybdenum/silicon multilayer coating and the other with a gold coating, were measured by use of synchrotron radiation in the 125–325-Å wavelength region. The peak reflectance of the multilayer coating was 22% in the first Bragg order near 235 Å and 28% in the second Bragg order near 126 Å. The peak efficiency of the multilayer grating was 2.6% in the first diffraction order near 225 Å and 0.3% in the second diffraction order near 125 Å. The efficiencies of the multilayer grating were much higher than the corresponding efficiencies of the gold grating. The characterization of the surfaces of the gratings by atomic force microscopy indicated rms microroughness values in the 5–18-µm-1 frequency range of 12–20 Å for the multilayer grating and 22–32 Å for the gold grating. Both gratings had bumpy surface features larger than the nominal groove height. The rather large surface roughness and groove irregularities had a detrimental effect on the grating efficiencies.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.0050) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction and gratings
(050.1950) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction gratings
(310.6860) Thin films : Thin films, optical properties
(340.7470) X-ray optics : X-ray mirrors

History
Original Manuscript: October 6, 1998
Revised Manuscript: January 4, 1999
Published: April 1, 1999

Citation
John F. Seely, Tetsuya Watanabe, Tatsuo Harada, Jack C. Rife, and William R. Hunter, "Normal-incidence efficiencies of 4800-grooves/mm-ruled replica gratings with multilayer and gold coatings in the 125–325-Å wavelength region," Appl. Opt. 38, 1920-1925 (1999)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-38-10-1920


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. T. Watanabe, H. Hara, T. Harada, “Spectroscopic observations in Solar-B,” in UV and X-Ray Spectroscopy of Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas, K. Yamashita, T. Watanabe, eds. (Universal Academy Press, Tokyo, 1996), pp. 219–250.
  2. T. Harada, H. Sakuma, K. Takahashi, T. Watanabe, H. Hara, T. Kita, “Design of a high-resolution extreme ultraviolet imaging spectrometer with aberration-corrected concave gratings,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6803–6810 (1998). [CrossRef]
  3. J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. C. Rife, “Normal-incidence efficiencies in the 115–340-Å wavelength region of replicas of the Skylab 3600-line/mm grating with multilayer and gold coatings,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6453–6458 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. W. R. Hunter, J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, “Grazing-incidence efficiencies in the 28–42-Å wavelength region of replicas of the Skylab 3600-line/mm concave grating with multilayer and gold coatings,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6411–6415 (1997). [CrossRef]
  5. J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, “On-blaze operation of a Mo/Si multilayer-coated, concave diffraction grating in the 136–142-Å wavelength region and near normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4890–4896 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. C. Rife, H. R. Sadeghi, W. R. Hunter, “Upgrades and recent performance of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2064–2067 (1989). [CrossRef]
  7. W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 246, 465–468 (1986). [CrossRef]
  8. B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993). Updated optical constants were obtained from the internet site cindy.lbl.gov/optical_constants .
  9. L. I. Goray, “Numerical analysis for relief gratings working in the soft x-ray and XUV region by the integral equation method,” in X-Ray and UV Detectors, R. B. Hoover, M. W. Tate, eds., Proc. SPIE2278, 168–172 (1994). [CrossRef]
  10. L. I. Goray, B. C. Chernov, “Comparison of rigorous methods for x-ray and XUV grating diffraction analysis,” in X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Optics, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2515, 240–245 (1995). [CrossRef]
  11. M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, L. I. Goray, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “Comparison of the calculated and the measured efficiencies of a normal-incidence grating in the 125–225-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8939–8943 (1997). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Figures

Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
 
Fig. 4 Fig. 5
 

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited