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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 38, Iss. 10 — Apr. 1, 1999
  • pp: 2068–2077

Determination of Kubelka–Munk scattering and absorption coefficients by diffuse illumination

Robert Molenaar, Jaap J. ten Bosch, and Jaap R. Zijp  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 38, Issue 10, pp. 2068-2077 (1999)

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The Kubelka–Munk theory, although it provides an equation that relates the reflection of a sample under diffuse illumination to certain of its properties, does not take boundary reflectance into account. Boundary reflection is always present because there is always a difference between the refractive indices of the sample and of the surrounding medium. We describe how a half-sphere is used to achieve diffuse illumination, and we present and exemplify equations that correct for boundary reflection with measurements of four composite restorative dental materials. The refractive index of the sample is measured with a matching technique that employs a glycerol–water mixture. Edge loss errors are estimated.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(120.1840) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Densitometers, reflectometers
(160.4760) Materials : Optical properties
(290.5820) Scattering : Scattering measurements
(290.7050) Scattering : Turbid media

Original Manuscript: October 14, 1998
Revised Manuscript: December 23, 1998
Published: April 1, 1999

Robert Molenaar, Jaap J. ten Bosch, and Jaap R. Zijp, "Determination of Kubelka–Munk scattering and absorption coefficients by diffuse illumination," Appl. Opt. 38, 2068-2077 (1999)

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