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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 38, Iss. 10 — Apr. 1, 1999
  • pp: 2105–2115

Video-rate confocal scanning laser microscope for imaging human tissues in vivo

Milind Rajadhyaksha, R. Rox Anderson, and Robert H. Webb  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 38, Issue 10, pp. 2105-2115 (1999)

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We have built a video-rate confocal scanning laser microscope for reflectance imaging of human skin and oral mucosa in vivo. Design and imaging parameters were determined for optimum resolution and contrast. Mechanical skin-holding fixtures and oral tissue clamps were made for stable objective lens-to-tissue contact such that gross tissue motion relative to the microscope was minimized. Confocal imaging was possible to maximum depths of 350 µm in human skin and 450 µm in oral mucosa, with measured lateral resolution of 0.5–1 µm and axial resolution (section thickness) of 3–5 µm at the 1064-nm wavelength. This resolution is comparable with that of conventional microscopy of excised biopsies (histology). Normal and abnormal tissue morphology and dynamic processes were observed.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(170.0110) Medical optics and biotechnology : Imaging systems
(170.0180) Medical optics and biotechnology : Microscopy
(170.1790) Medical optics and biotechnology : Confocal microscopy
(170.1870) Medical optics and biotechnology : Dermatology
(170.3880) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical and biological imaging
(170.4730) Medical optics and biotechnology : Optical pathology

Original Manuscript: July 22, 1998
Revised Manuscript: January 5, 1999
Published: April 1, 1999

Milind Rajadhyaksha, R. Rox Anderson, and Robert H. Webb, "Video-rate confocal scanning laser microscope for imaging human tissues in vivo," Appl. Opt. 38, 2105-2115 (1999)

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