OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 38, Iss. 15 — May. 20, 1999
  • pp: 3214–3222

General formula for coupling-loss characterization of single-mode fiber collimators by use of gradient-index rod lenses

Shifu Yuan and Nabeel A. Riza  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 38, Issue 15, pp. 3214-3222 (1999)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (175 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A general formula for determining the coupling loss between two single-mode fiber collimators with the simultaneous existence of separation, lateral offset and angular tilt misalignments, and spot-size mismatch is theoretically derived by use of the Gaussian field approximation. Based on this general formula, the formulas for coupling losses that are due to the misalignment of insert separation, lateral offset, and angular tilt are given. The formula for the coupling loss that is due to Gaussian spot-size mismatch of two single-mode collimators is also given. Good agreement between these formulas and experimental results is demonstrated with gradient-index rod lens-based fiber collimators operating in the 1300-nm band.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(060.2310) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics
(060.2340) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics components
(060.2430) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fibers, single-mode
(110.2760) Imaging systems : Gradient-index lenses

Original Manuscript: October 15, 1998
Revised Manuscript: February 19, 1999
Published: May 20, 1999

Shifu Yuan and Nabeel A. Riza, "General formula for coupling-loss characterization of single-mode fiber collimators by use of gradient-index rod lenses," Appl. Opt. 38, 3214-3222 (1999)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. M. S. Borella, J. P. Jue, B. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Components for WDM lightwave networks,” Proc. IEEE 85, 1274–1307 (1997). [CrossRef]
  2. W. J. Tomlinson, “Application of GRIN-rod lenses in optical fiber communication systems,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1127–1138 (1980). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. N. A. Riza, S. Yuan, “Low optical interchannel crosstalk, fast switching time, polarization independent 2 × 2 fiber optic switch using ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1341–1342 (1998). [CrossRef]
  4. N. Madamopoulos, N. Riza, “Directly modulated semiconductor-laser-fed photonic delay line with ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1407–1416 (1998). [CrossRef]
  5. J. C. Palais, “Fiber coupling using graded-index rod lenses,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2011–2018 (1980). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. W. Gilsdorf, J. C. Palais, “Single-mode fiber coupling efficiency with graded-index rod lenses,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3440–3445 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. Kogelnik, “Coupling and conversion coefficients for optical modes,” in Proceedings of the Symposium on Quasi-Optics, J. Fox, ed., Vol. 14 of Polytechnic Institute Microwave Research Institute Symposia Series (Polytechnic Brooklyn, Brooklyn, N.Y., 1964), pp. 335–347.
  8. D. Marcuse, “Loss analysis of single-mode fiber splices,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 56, 703–719 (1977). [CrossRef]
  9. S. Nemeto, T. Makimoto, “Analysis of splice loss in single-mode fibres using a Gaussian field approximation,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 11, 447–457 (1979). [CrossRef]
  10. J. K. Kim, N. A. Riza, “Fiber array optical coupling design issues for photonic beamformers,” in Pacific Northwest Fiber Optic Sensor Workshop, E. Udd, ed., Proc. SPIE2754, 271–282 (1996).
  11. A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications, 5th ed. (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1997).
  12. Selfoc Product Guide, manufacturer’s literature on fiber collimators (NSG America, Inc., New Jersey, 1997).
  13. T. Sakamoto, “Coupling characteristic analysis of single-mode and multimode optical-fiber connectors using gradient-index-rod lenses,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5184–5190 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. W. S. Wu, “Reduction of coupling loss in many-to-many collimating system for optomechanical matrix switch,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1834–1837 (1998). [CrossRef]
  15. Opto-electronics Group, Corning, Inc., Corning Optical Fiber Product Information PI1044, on Corning SMF-28 single-mode optical fiber (Corning, Inc., Corning, N.Y., 1996).
  16. N. A. Riza, S. Yuan, “Demonstration of a liquid-crystal adaptive alignment tweeker for high-speed infrared band fiber-fed free-space system,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1876–1880 (1998). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited