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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 38, Iss. 19 — Jul. 1, 1999
  • pp: 4089–4094

Heterodyne interferometer with subatomic periodic nonlinearity

Chien-ming Wu, John Lawall, and Richard D. Deslattes  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 38, Issue 19, pp. 4089-4094 (1999)

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A new, to our knowledge, heterodyne interferometer for differential displacement measurements is presented. It is, in principle, free of periodic nonlinearity. A pair of spatially separated light beams with different frequencies is produced by two acousto-optic modulators, avoiding the main source of periodic nonlinearity in traditional heterodyne interferometers that are based on a Zeeman split laser. In addition, laser beams of the same frequency are used in the measurement and the reference arms, giving the interferometer theoretically perfect immunity from common-mode displacement. We experimentally demonstrated a residual level of periodic nonlinearity of less than 20 pm in amplitude. The remaining periodic error is attributed to unbalanced ghost reflections that drift slowly with time.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry
(120.5050) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Phase measurement

Original Manuscript: January 11, 1999
Revised Manuscript: April 22, 1999
Published: July 1, 1999

Chien-ming Wu, John Lawall, and Richard D. Deslattes, "Heterodyne interferometer with subatomic periodic nonlinearity," Appl. Opt. 38, 4089-4094 (1999)

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  1. N. Bobroff, “Recent advances in displacement measuring interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 4, 907–926 (1993). [CrossRef]
  2. C. M. Wu, R. D. Deslattes, “Analytical modeling of the periodic nonlinearity in heterodyne interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6696–6700 (1998). [CrossRef]
  3. C. M. Wu, C. S. Su, “Nonlinearity in measurements of length by optical interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 7, 62–68 (1996). [CrossRef]
  4. W. Hou, G. Wilkening, “Investigation and compensation of the nonlinearity of heterodyne interferometers,” Precis. Eng. 14, 91–98 (1992). [CrossRef]
  5. C. M. Wu, C. S. Su, G. S. Peng, “Correction of nonlinearity in one-frequency optical interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 7, 520–524 (1996). [CrossRef]
  6. M. Tanaka, T. Yamagami, K. Nakayama, “Linear interpolation of periodic error in a heterodyne laser interferometer at subnanometer levels,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 38, 552–554 (1989). [CrossRef]
  7. This relation has also been discussed in A. E. Rosenbluth, N. Bobroff, “Optical sources of nonlinearity in heterodyne interferometers,” Precis. Eng. 12, 7–11 (1990). [CrossRef]

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