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Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 38, Iss. 33 — Nov. 20, 1999
  • pp: 6836–6844

Two-dimensional index profiling of fibers and waveguides

Norman H. Fontaine and Matt Young  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 38, Issue 33, pp. 6836-6844 (1999)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.38.006836


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Abstract

We have constructed a two-dimensional refracted-ray scanner that can resolve index-of-refraction increments of approximately 4 × 10-5. This resolution is an order of magnitude finer than the uncertainty of the measurement. The scanner can be adapted to evaluate either fibers or planar waveguides. The two-dimensional scan and the high precision allow visualization of features, such as deposition layers, that are difficult if not impossible to see in conventional one-dimensional scans.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(060.0060) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics and optical communications
(060.2300) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber measurements
(060.2430) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fibers, single-mode
(130.0130) Integrated optics : Integrated optics

History
Original Manuscript: April 14, 1999
Revised Manuscript: July 21, 1999
Published: November 20, 1999

Citation
Norman H. Fontaine and Matt Young, "Two-dimensional index profiling of fibers and waveguides," Appl. Opt. 38, 6836-6844 (1999)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-38-33-6836


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References

  1. M. Young, “Optical fiber index profiles by the refracted-ray method (refracted near-field scanning),” Appl. Opt. 20, 3415–3421 (1981). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. L. White, “Practical application of the refracted near-field technique for the measurement of optical fiber refractive index profiles,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 11, 185–196 (1979). [CrossRef]
  3. Anonymous, “Refractive index profile, refracted-ray method,” (Telecommunications Industry Association, 2500 Wilson Blvd., Suite 300, Arlington, Va. 22201-3384, 1992). Here we adopt the TIA’s preferred term, refracted-ray method, instead of refracted near-field scanning, in part because currently near-field scanning can reasonably be assumed to mean optical probe microscopy.
  4. J. W. Fleming, “Material and mode dispersion in GeO2 · B2O3 · SiO2 glasses,” Amer. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 59, 503–507 (1976). [CrossRef]
  5. K. W. Raine, J. G. N. Baines, D. E. Putland, “Refractive index profiling—state of the art,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1162–1169 (1989). [CrossRef]
  6. Specialty Optical Liquids (R. P. Cargille Laboratories, Cedar Grove, N.J., undated).
  7. J. Delly, Photography Through the Microscope, 9th ed. (Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, N.Y., 1988).
  8. R. Göring, M. Rothbardt, “Application of the refracted near-field technique to multimode planar and channel waveguides in glass,” J. Opt. Commun. 7, 82–85 (1986); N. Gisin, J. P. Pellaux, P. Stamp, N. Hori, M. Masuyama, “Alternative configuration for refracted near-field measurements of index of refraction on glass-integrated-optics waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7108–7112 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. S. Funk, D. L. Veasey, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, N. H. Fontaine, M. Young, “Erbium/ytterbium-co-doped glass waveguide laser producing 170 mW of output power at 1540 nm,” Conf. Digest, Optical Fiber Conf., 1999); D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarsky, N. H. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W.-C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, J. S. Hayden, “Yb/Er-codoped and Yb-doped waveguide lasers in phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids (to be published).

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