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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 38, Iss. 33 — Nov. 20, 1999
  • pp: 6849–6858

Image formation with regard to object shadow for objects inside a scattering medium

Iosif L. Katsev, Eleonora P. Zege, and Alexander S. Prikhach  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 38, Issue 33, pp. 6849-6858 (1999)

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The conventional theory of image transfer through a scattering medium treats objects located upon reflecting surfaces. It is shown that, when an object is located inside a scattering medium and shields a part of space, ignoring the shadowing leads to incorrect results, especially for modern time-gating systems. We develop a general theory of image formation including the shadowing effect when an object is located inside a scattering medium. The example of the observation of a submerged object through a windy ocean surface is chosen to illustrate this theory. A few unexpected effects in imaging of a submerged object are found and discussed, including contrast conversion for a sinking object and higher contrast in the shadow image than in the image of the object itself. The conclusion that using the shadow image for detection of a submerged object can be more efficient than using the image of the object itself is of practical significance.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(110.2970) Imaging systems : Image detection systems
(110.2990) Imaging systems : Image formation theory
(110.7050) Imaging systems : Turbid media
(240.6690) Optics at surfaces : Surface waves
(290.1350) Scattering : Backscattering

Original Manuscript: February 24, 1999
Revised Manuscript: August 2, 1999
Published: November 20, 1999

Iosif L. Katsev, Eleonora P. Zege, and Alexander S. Prikhach, "Image formation with regard to object shadow for objects inside a scattering medium," Appl. Opt. 38, 6849-6858 (1999)

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  1. E. P. Zege, A. P. Ivanov, I. L. Katsev, Image Transfer through a Scattering Medium (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991). [CrossRef]
  2. L. S. Dolin, I. M. Levin, Theory of Underwater Vision (Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 1991).
  3. I. L. Katsev, E. P. Zege, A. S. Prikhach, I. N. Polonsky, “Efficient technique to determine backscattered light power for various atmospheric and oceanic sounding and imaging systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1338–1346 (1997). [CrossRef]
  4. S. E. Moran, B. L. Ulich, M. J. DeWeert, R. L. Strittmatter, R. N. Keeler, E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, A. S. Prikhach, “A comparative analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio and resolving power of laser line scan, streak tube, and range-gated underwater imaging lidar systems,” in Ocean Optics XIV CD-ROM (Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 1998).
  5. V. V. Barun, “Detection of a small target against bottom of water reservoir,” in Signal and Data Processing of Small Targets 1996, O. E. Drummond, ed., Proc. SPIE2759, 490–501 (1996). [CrossRef]
  6. E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, A. S. Prikhach, “Range of vision in ocean and atmosphere,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 8, 510–523 (1992).

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