OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 39, Iss. 17 — Jun. 10, 2000
  • pp: 2941–2947

At-wavelength, system-level flare characterization of extreme-ultraviolet optical systems

Patrick Naulleau, Kenneth A. Goldberg, Eric M. Gullikson, and Jeffrey Bokor  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 39, Issue 17, pp. 2941-2947 (2000)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (378 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometer (PS/PDI) has recently been developed to provide high-accuracy wave-front characterization critical to the development of EUV lithography systems. Here we describe an enhanced implementation of the PS/PDI that significantly extends its measurement bandwidth. The enhanced PS/PDI is capable of simultaneously characterizing both wave front and flare. PS/PDI-based flare characterization of two recently fabricated EUV 10×-reduction lithographic optical systems is presented.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(090.0090) Holography : Holography
(110.1650) Imaging systems : Coherence imaging
(110.2970) Imaging systems : Image detection systems
(120.2650) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Fringe analysis
(120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry
(120.3940) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Metrology
(120.5820) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Scattering measurements
(260.7200) Physical optics : Ultraviolet, extreme

Original Manuscript: November 8, 1999
Published: June 10, 2000

Patrick Naulleau, Kenneth A. Goldberg, Eric M. Gullikson, and Jeffrey Bokor, "At-wavelength, system-level flare characterization of extreme-ultraviolet optical systems," Appl. Opt. 39, 2941-2947 (2000)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. E. Bjorkholm, A. A. MacDowell, O. R. Wood, Z. Tan, B. LaFontaine, D. M. Tennant, “Phase-measuring interferometry using extreme ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2919–2922 (1995). [CrossRef]
  2. A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, F. Cerrina, Z. Tan, J. Bjorkholm, D. Tennant, S. J. Spector, “Alignment of a multilayer-coated imaging system using extreme ultraviolet Foucault and Ronchi interferometric testing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 3089–3093 (1995). [CrossRef]
  3. H. Medecki, E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1526–1528 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. A. Goldberg, “Extreme ultraviolet interferometry,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of California, Berkeley, Calif.1997).
  5. E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, “At-wavelength interferometry for EUV lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455–2461 (1997). [CrossRef]
  6. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, S. Lee, C. Chang, D. Attwood, J. Bokor, “Extreme-ultraviolet phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometer: a wave-front metrology tool with subangstrom reference-wave accuracy,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7252–7263 (1999). [CrossRef]
  7. K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, J. Bokor, “EUV interferometric measurements of diffraction-limited optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 2982–2986 (1999). [CrossRef]
  8. E. Gullikson, S. Baker, J. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. Goldberg, J. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. Spiller, D. Stearns, J. Taylor, J. Underwood, “EUV scattering and flare from 10× projection cameras,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 717–723 (1999). [CrossRef]
  9. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, “Interferometric at-wavelength flare characterization of EUV optical systems,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 2987–2991 (1999). [CrossRef]
  10. E. M. Gullikson, “Scattering from normal incidence EUV optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 72–80 (1998). [CrossRef]
  11. W. Linnik, “A simple interferometer to test optical systems,” Proc. Acad. Sci. USSR 1, 210–212 (1933).
  12. R. N. Smartt, W. H. Steel, “Theory and application of point-diffraction interferometers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14(Suppl. 14-1), 351–356 (1975).
  13. E. N. Leith, J. Upatnieks, “Reconstructed wavefronts and communication theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1123–1130 (1962). [CrossRef]
  14. E. N. Leith, J. Upatnieks, “Wavefronts reconstruction with diffused illumination and three-dimensional objects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1295–1302 (1964). [CrossRef]
  15. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, “Dual-domain point diffraction interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3523–3533 (1999). [CrossRef]
  16. D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.
  17. R. Beguiristain, J. Underwood, M. Koike, P. Batson, E. Gullikson, K. Jackson, H. Medecki, D. Attwood, “High flux undulator beam line optics for EUV interferometry and photoemission microscopy,” in High Heat Flux Engineering III, A. M. Khounsary, ed., Proc. SPIE2855, 159–169 (1996). [CrossRef]
  18. D. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, M. Koike, H. Medecki, J. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral regions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999). [CrossRef]
  19. K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, R. Gaughan, H. Chapman, J. Goldsmith, J. Bokor, “Direct comparison of EUV and visible-light interferometries,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 635–642 (1999). [CrossRef]
  20. J. Goldsmith, K. Berger, D. Bozman, G. Cardinale, D. Folk, C. Henderson, D. O’Connell, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. Stewart, D. Tichenor, H. Chapman, R. Gaughan, R. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, J. Taylor, J. Williams, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm imaging with the EUV 10× microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited