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Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 39, Iss. 19 — Jul. 1, 2000
  • pp: 3361–3371

Beam-profile modulation of thulium laser radiation applied with multimode fibers and its effect on the threshold fluence to vaporize water

Ralf Brinkmann and Christoph Hansen  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 39, Issue 19, pp. 3361-3371 (2000)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.39.003361


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Abstract

The threshold fluences at which vaporization is initiated at the tip of a multimode fiber that is submerged in water were investigated when free-running and Q-switched thulium laser pulses (λ = 2.01 µm) were applied with different pulse energies. We focused on the quantification of temporal and spatial fluence modulations of the beam profile at the tip of a 400-µm fiber. The spatial and the temporal fluence peaks over the average fluence were measured to as high as 1.5 and 4 in the Q-switched mode, respectively, and 2.5 and 40 in the free-running mode, respectively. The fluence peaks significantly influence the vaporization process. An increase in the threshold fluence with increasing pulse energy was found for the Q-switched mode, but there was a decrease for the free-running mode. Pressure transients of the order of 1 kbar and temperatures higher than 200 °C were calculated for a 30-mJ Q-switched laser pulse at the onset of vaporization. Collecting all the data allowed us to trace the thermodynamic path of rapid heating and vaporization in a phase diagram of water.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(030.1670) Coherence and statistical optics : Coherent optical effects
(030.6140) Coherence and statistical optics : Speckle
(140.3070) Lasers and laser optics : Infrared and far-infrared lasers
(140.6810) Lasers and laser optics : Thermal effects
(170.1020) Medical optics and biotechnology : Ablation of tissue

History
Original Manuscript: September 27, 1999
Revised Manuscript: March 28, 2000
Published: July 1, 2000

Citation
Ralf Brinkmann and Christoph Hansen, "Beam-profile modulation of thulium laser radiation applied with multimode fibers and its effect on the threshold fluence to vaporize water," Appl. Opt. 39, 3361-3371 (2000)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-39-19-3361

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