An optical system consisting of two objective lenses in a confocal arrangement is examined. It is shown that a simple algebraic relation exists between the electric field in the back focal plane of the first objective lens, which focuses the incident light, and the Fourier transform of the electric field in the focal plane of the same lens. The relation holds for high angles. If a thin object is placed in the focal plane it is possible to write the electric field by use of a Fourier transform relation at the exit aperture of the second lens. The theory is generalized for objects that are positioned at oblique angles with respect to the optical axis of the system. This configuration is clearly identical to the setup of a spatially resolving ellipsometer.
© 2000 Optical Society of America
(050.1960) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction theory
(180.0180) Microscopy : Microscopy
(260.0260) Physical optics : Physical optics
(260.2110) Physical optics : Electromagnetic optics
(260.2130) Physical optics : Ellipsometry and polarimetry
Peter Varga, "Use of confocal microscopes in conoscopy and ellipsometry. 1. Electromagnetic theory," Appl. Opt. 39, 6360-6365 (2000)