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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 40, Iss. 1 — Jan. 1, 2001
  • pp: 95–99

Polarized differential-phase laser scanning microscope

Chien Chou, Chung-Wei Lyu, and Li-Cheng Peng  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 40, Issue 1, pp. 95-99 (2001)

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A polarized differential-phase laser scanning microscope, which combines a polarized optical heterodyne Mach–Zehnder interferometer and a differential amplifier to scan the topographic image of a surface, is proposed. In the experiment the differential amplifier, which acts as a PM–AM converter in the experiment, converting phase modulation (PM) into amplitude modulation (AM). Then a novel, to our knowledge, phase demodulator was proposed and implemented for the differential-phase laser scanning microscope. An optical grating (1800 lp/mm) was imaged. The lateral and the depth resolutions of the imaging system were 0.5 µm and 1 nm, respectively. The detection accuracy, which was limited by the reflectivity variation of the test surface, is discussed.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(120.2130) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Ellipsometry and polarimetry
(120.2830) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Height measurements
(120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry
(120.3940) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Metrology
(180.3170) Microscopy : Interference microscopy
(180.5810) Microscopy : Scanning microscopy

Original Manuscript: April 3, 2000
Revised Manuscript: August 14, 2000
Published: January 1, 2001

Chien Chou, Chung-Wei Lyu, and Li-Cheng Peng, "Polarized differential-phase laser scanning microscope," Appl. Opt. 40, 95-99 (2001)

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