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Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 40, Iss. 12 — Apr. 20, 2001
  • pp: 1974–1978

Precision measurement of wavelengths emitted by a molecular fluorine laser at 157 nm

Craig J. Sansonetti, Joseph Reader, and Klaus Vogler  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 40, Issue 12, pp. 1974-1978 (2001)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.40.001974


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Abstract

The wavelengths of six spectral lines emitted by a molecular fluorine (F2) laser at 157 nm were measured to high accuracy with the 10.7-m normal-incidence vacuum spectrograph at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Lines from a Pt–Ne hollow-cathode lamp served as the wavelength standards. Spectra of the laser and the Pt–Ne lamp were photographed simultaneously through an uncoated CaF2 beam splitter. The optical paths were arranged so as to avoid shifts in line positions arising from possible differences in illumination of the grating by the two sources. The strongest lasing line was found to have a wavelength of 157.63094(10) nm. Changes in wavelength for variations in gas mixture, total gas pressure, and voltage were also measured.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(110.5220) Imaging systems : Photolithography
(120.3940) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Metrology
(140.7240) Lasers and laser optics : UV, EUV, and X-ray lasers
(300.3700) Spectroscopy : Linewidth
(300.6170) Spectroscopy : Spectra

History
Original Manuscript: July 27, 2000
Revised Manuscript: January 2, 2001
Published: April 20, 2001

Citation
Craig J. Sansonetti, Joseph Reader, and Klaus Vogler, "Precision measurement of wavelengths emitted by a molecular fluorine laser at 157 nm," Appl. Opt. 40, 1974-1978 (2001)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-40-12-1974


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References

  1. Semiconductor Industry Association, International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors: 1999 Edition (International SEMATECH, Austin, Tex., 1999).
  2. J. A. McClay, A. S. L. McIntyre, “157 nm optical lithography: the accomplishments and the challenges,” Solid State Technol. 42, 57–68 (1999).
  3. J. K. Rice, A. K. Hays, J. R. Woodworth, “vuv emissions from mixtures of F2 and the noble gases—a molecular F2 laser at 1575 Å,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 31–33 (1977). [CrossRef]
  4. M. Kakehata, C.-H. Yang, Y. Ueno, F. Kannari, “Output characteristics of a discharge-pumped F2 laser (157 nm) with an injection-seeded unstable resonator,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 2241–2246 (1983). [CrossRef]
  5. S. M. Hooker, C. E. Webb, “Progress in vacuum ultraviolet lasers,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 18, 227–274 (1994). [CrossRef]
  6. J. R. Woodworth, J. K. Rice, “An efficient, high-power F2 laser near 157 nm,” J. Chem. Phys. 69, 2500–2504 (1978). [CrossRef]
  7. Commercial products are identified in this paper for adequate specification of the experimental procedure. This identification does not imply recommendation or endorsement by NIST.
  8. The wavelengths are cited in M. J. Weber, Handbook of Laser Wavelengths (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1999) and in earlier versions of this table as being wavelengths in air. However, these values clearly represent wavelengths in vacuum.
  9. T. J. McKee, “Spectral-narrowing techniques for excimer laser oscillators,” Can. J. Phys. 63, 214–219 (1985). [CrossRef]
  10. Although no uncertainties or details of the measurements were given by McKee, review of the research log sheets at the National Research Council shows that the measurements were made by photographing light from the F2 laser in seventh order on a 10.7-m normal-incidence vacuum spectrograph. Wavelengths were calibrated by lines in overlapping orders from an iron hollow-cathode lamp. Light from the hollow cathode was directed to the spectrometer by a mirror mounted at 45 ° to the optic axis of the spectrometer. K. P. Huber, Steacie Institute for Molecular Science, National Research Council of Canada, Ottowa, Ontario (personal communication, March2000).
  11. V. N. Ishchenko, S. A. Kochubei, A. M. Razhev, “High-power efficient vacuum ultraviolet F2 laser excited by an electric discharge,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 707–709 (1986). [CrossRef]
  12. K. Vogler, U. Stamm, I. Bragin, F. Voss, S. Govorkov, G. Hua, J. Kleinschmidt, R. Pätzel, “Advanced F2-lasers for microlithography,” in Optical Microlithography XIII, C. J. Progler, ed., Proc. SPIE4000, 1515–1528 (2000). [CrossRef]
  13. J. E. Sansonetti, J. Reader, C. J. Sansonetti, N. Acquista, “Atlas of the spectrum of a platinum/neon hollow-cathode reference lamp in the region 1130-4330 Å,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 97, 1–211 (1992). [CrossRef]
  14. V. Kaufman, “Wavelengths, energy levels, and pressure shifts in mercury 198,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 866–870 (1962). [CrossRef]
  15. S. H. Emara, “Wavelength shifts in Hg198 as a function of temperature,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 65, 473–474 (1961). [CrossRef]

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