Multienergy Cu+ ions with total dose of ∼1014 ions/cm2 were implanted into LiNbO3 crystals to form a nearly homogenous damage profile from the sample surface to the end of the ions’ track. The extraordinary refractive-index enhancement was found in the damage region by observation of the dark mode. The extraordinary index showed an increasing trend until the ion dose reached a critical value. The largest index enhancement was ∼0.0132. By use of low-dose ion implantation, we determined that the decreased spontaneous polarization caused the extraordinary index increase.
© 2001 Optical Society of America
Original Manuscript: March 9, 2001
Published: August 1, 2001
Hui Hu, Fei Lu, Feng Chen, Bo-Rong Shi, Ke-Ming Wang, and Ding-Yu Shen, "Extraordinary refractive-index increase in lithium niobate caused by low-dose ion implantation," Appl. Opt. 40, 3759-3761 (2001)