There is a wide choice of starting materials for the production of titanium dioxide films by reactive electron-beam evaporation. We have investigated the specific merits of these materials in terms of refractive index, stress, and abrasion resistance of the resultant titanium dioxide films. The suboxides TiO, Ti<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>, and Ti<sub>3</sub>O<sub>5</sub> as well as titanium dioxide and titanium metal were reactively evaporated, and titanium dioxide films free of absorption were obtained on substrates at 25 and 250°C. On unheated substrates the refractive index, which varies from 2.06 to 2.22, the stress, and the abrasion resistance all depend on the starting material used. On substrates heated to 250°C the refractive indices of all films lie closely about 2.4, and all films show high tensile stress and good abrasion resistance.
© 2002 Optical Society of America
(160.4760) Materials : Optical properties
(310.0310) Thin films : Thin films
(310.1620) Thin films : Interference coatings
(310.1860) Thin films : Deposition and fabrication
(310.6860) Thin films : Thin films, optical properties
Hubert Selhofer, Elmar Ritter, and Robert Linsbod, "Properties of Titanium Dioxide Films Prepared by Reactive Electron-Beam Evaporation from Various Starting Materials," Appl. Opt. 41, 756-762 (2002)