Systematics of the Novaya Zemlya (NZ) effect are discussed in the context of sunsets. We distinguish full mirages, exhibiting oscillatory light paths and their onsets, the subcritical mirages. Ray-tracing examples and sequences of solar images are shown. We discuss two historical observations by Fridtjof Nansen and by Vivian Fuchs, and we report a recent South Pole observation of the NZ effect for the Moon.
© 2003 Optical Society of America
(010.4030) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Mirages and refraction
Original Manuscript: November 29, 2001
Revised Manuscript: March 20, 2002
Published: January 20, 2003
Siebren Y. van der Werf, Günther P. Können, and Waldemar H. Lehn, "Novaya Zemlya effect and sunsets," Appl. Opt. 42, 367-378 (2003)