We demonstrate four-dimensional microscopy of defects in integrated circuits by a technique that combines laser-scanning confocal reflectance microscopy with one-photon optical-beam-induced current (1P-OBIC) imaging. Accurate information is obtained about the three-dimensional structure of the defect and the kind of material (metal, semiconductor, or dielectric) that is damaged by the defect. The same focused probe beam simultaneously produces the 1P-OBIC and reflectance signals from the illuminated sample spot. The hardware development cost is minimal for a laser-scanning confocal microscope, and the image reconstruction procedure is computationally efficient. Imaging is demonstrated on defects that are caused by electrical overstress and unwanted generation centers. Exclusive three-dimensional distributions of the semiconductor and metal sites in the integrated circuit reveal defect features that are difficult to recognize with confocal or 1P-OBIC imaging alone.
© 2003 Optical Society of America
Original Manuscript: March 7, 2003
Revised Manuscript: August 15, 2003
Published: November 10, 2003
Jelda Jayne Miranda and Caesar Saloma, "Four-dimensional microscopy of defects in integrated circuits," Appl. Opt. 42, 6520-6524 (2003)