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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 43, Iss. 11 — Apr. 10, 2004
  • pp: 2272–2284

Topographic profiling and refractive-index analysis by use of differential interference contrast with bright-field intensity and atomic force imaging

Noel Axelrod, Anna Radko, Aaron Lewis, and Nissim Ben-Yosef  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 43, Issue 11, pp. 2272-2284 (2004)

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A methodology is described for phase restoration of an object function from differential interference contrast (DIC) images. The methodology involves collecting a set of DIC images in the same plane with different bias retardation between the two illuminating light components produced by a Wollaston prism. These images, together with one conventional bright-field image, allows for reduction of the phase deconvolution restoration problem from a highly complex nonlinear mathematical formulation to a set of linear equations that can be applied to resolve the phase for images with a relatively large number of pixels. Additionally, under certain conditions, an on-line atomic force imaging system that does not interfere with the standard DIC illumination modes resolves uncertainties in large topographical variations that generally lead to a basic problem in DIC imaging, i.e., phase unwrapping. Furthermore, the availability of confocal detection allows for a three-dimensional reconstruction with high accuracy of the refractive-index measurement of the object that is to be imaged. This has been applied to reconstruction of the refractive index of an arrayed waveguide in a region in which a defect in the sample is present. The results of this paper highlight the synergism of far-field microscopies integrated with scanned probe microscopies and restoration algorithms for phase reconstruction.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(060.1810) Fiber optics and optical communications : Buffers, couplers, routers, switches, and multiplexers
(100.3020) Image processing : Image reconstruction-restoration
(100.5070) Image processing : Phase retrieval
(120.6650) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Surface measurements, figure
(180.3170) Microscopy : Interference microscopy
(180.5810) Microscopy : Scanning microscopy
(180.6900) Microscopy : Three-dimensional microscopy

Original Manuscript: April 3, 2003
Revised Manuscript: November 11, 2003
Published: April 10, 2004

Noel Axelrod, Anna Radko, Aaron Lewis, and Nissim Ben-Yosef, "Topographic profiling and refractive-index analysis by use of differential interference contrast with bright-field intensity and atomic force imaging," Appl. Opt. 43, 2272-2284 (2004)

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