Optical mode discrimination in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers that contain distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) and a spatially limited gain medium is analyzed numerically. It is assumed that the output field is linearly polarized owing to gain selectivity. The analysis employs a three-dimensional model and an angular spectrum of plane-wave decomposition with the proper polarizations. Two types of round aperture are considered, namely, a Gaussian aperture and a ring-peak aperture that represents gain saturation. Coupled with the DBRs, the former aperture yields nearly Laguerre-Gaussian modes, whereas the latter aperture significantly distorts the mode shapes. In both cases, narrowband DBRs provide the best mode discrimination.
© 2005 Optical Society of America
Martin Achtenhagen, Amos Hardy, and Eli Kapon, "Three-dimensional analysis of mode discrimination in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Opt. 44, 2832-2838 (2005)