OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 44, Iss. 16 — Jun. 1, 2005
  • pp: 3224–3237

Waveguide analysis of organic light-emitting diodes fabricated on surfaces with wavelength-scale periodic gratings

Joseph F. Revelli, Lee W. Tutt, and Brian E. Kruschwitz  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 44, Issue 16, pp. 3224-3237 (2005)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.44.003224


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (255 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Numerical techniques for the analysis of multilayer waveguide structures were used to study the modes that exist in organic light-emitting diode (OLED) devices. The analysis revealed that waveguide modes of the OLED structure could be grouped, according to the behavior of modal-field profiles in the air cover and the glass substrate, into one of four different “families”: (i) bound mode, (ii) semibound modes, (iii) leaky modes, and (iv) nonphysical modes. Four different OLED samples were fabricated on glass substrates on which photoresist gratings had been previously formed. The theory was used to compute the angles at which light from these devices should exit into the air. Theory and data agreed well for the semibound modes for all samples; however, they did not agree so well for the leaky modes. Further investigation revealed that better agreement between theory and data could be obtained with these modes being analyzed as Fabry–Perot cavity modes. The theoretical relation between leaky waveguide modes and Fabry–Perot cavity modes is discussed.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(250.3680) Optoelectronics : Light-emitting polymers
(310.2790) Thin films : Guided waves

History
Original Manuscript: July 7, 2004
Revised Manuscript: November 2, 2004
Manuscript Accepted: January 18, 2005
Published: June 1, 2005

Citation
Joseph F. Revelli, Lee W. Tutt, and Brian E. Kruschwitz, "Waveguide analysis of organic light-emitting diodes fabricated on surfaces with wavelength-scale periodic gratings," Appl. Opt. 44, 3224-3237 (2005)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-44-16-3224


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. D. Wood, Optoelectronic Semiconductor Devices, Prentice Hall, London, 1997.
  2. A. N. Safonov, M. Jory, B. J. Matterson, J. M. Luption, M. G. Salt, J. A. E. Wasey, W. L. Barnes, I. D. W. Samuel, “Modification of polymer light emission by lateral microstruc-ture,” Synth. Met. 116, 145–148 (2001). [CrossRef]
  3. Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779–3781 (2003). [CrossRef]
  4. H. Benistry, H. D. Neveand, C. Weisbuch, “Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction-Part II: selected exact simulations and role of photon recycling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1632–1643 (1998). [CrossRef]
  5. I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2174–2176 (1993). [CrossRef]
  6. J. J. Shiang, A. R. Duggal, “Application of radiative transport theory to light extraction from organic light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2880–2888 (2004). [CrossRef]
  7. V. Bulovic, V. B. Khalifin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Gar-buzov, S. R. Forrest, “Weak microcavity effects in organic light-emitting devices,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 3730–3740 (1998). [CrossRef]
  8. G. Gu, D. Z. Garbuzov, P. E. Burrows, S. Venkatesh, S. R. Forrest, M. E. Thompson, “High-external-quantum-efficiency organic light-emitting devices,” Opt. Lett. 22, 396–398 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. O. Barros, C. Mias, C. B. Thomas, R. Stevens, “A comparison of the outcoupling characteristics of laterally emitting thin-film electroluminescent devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 15, 875–881 (2000). [CrossRef]
  10. D. K. Gifford, D. G. Hall, “Emission through one of two metal electrodes of an organic light-emitting diode via surface-plasmon cross coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4315–4317 (2002). [CrossRef]
  11. R. E. Smith, S. N. Houde-Walter, G. W. Forbes, “Mode determination for planar waveguide using the four-sheeted dispersion relation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1520–1526 (1992). [CrossRef]
  12. The emitting layer is in the Alq3 and is located near the ETL–HTL interface. The thickness of the ETL layer represents the combined thickness of the ETL and the emission layers.
  13. See, for example, F. B. Hildebrand, Advanced Calculus for Applications (Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 1964), p. 362.
  14. L. M. Delves, J. N. Lyness, “A numerical method for locating the zeros of an analytic function,” Math. Comput. 21, 543–560 (1967). [CrossRef]
  15. See, for example, D. K. Gifford, Emission from Organic Light-Emitting Diodes via Surface-Plasmon Cross-Coupling, Ph.D. dissertation (University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, 2001), Chap. 3.
  16. E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985).
  17. A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, T. M. Miller, E. W. Kwock, “Microcavity effects in organic semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2486–2488 (1994). [CrossRef]
  18. T. Shiga, H. Fujikawa, Y. Taga, “Design of multiwave-length resonant cavities for white organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 19–22 (2003). [CrossRef]
  19. At first glance, it might appear as if the Fabry–Perot modes should be classified as nonphysical since these modes assume that AN≠ 0. However, the Fabry–Perot cavity represents a driven oscillator, and as such, it is fundamentally different from a waveguide. In the context of the current analysis, Fabry–Perot modes can be regarded as resonance responses of an oscillator; that is, the natural oscillations established in the absence of a driving term.
  20. See, for example, M. V. Klein, Optics (Wiley, New York, 1970), p. 205.
  21. The solution given in Eq. (23) is an approximation to the roots of the waveguide dispersion equation because account has not been taken of ρc,ρa,ϕc,and ϕa being functions of z.
  22. Note that both the TE and the TM semibound modes exhibit exponentially growing field profiles with distance into the glass substrate. This feature is not evident on the scale shown in Fig. 8.
  23. See, for example, R. W. Gruhlke, Optical Emission from Surface Waves Supported in Thin Metal Films, Ph.D. dissertation (University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, 1987).
  24. R. W. Gruhlke, W. R. Holland, D. G. Hall, “Surface plasmon cross coupling in molecular fluorescence near a corrugated thin metal film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2838–2841 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited