OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Editor: Glenn D. Boreman
  • Vol. 44, Iss. 33 — Nov. 20, 2005
  • pp: 7170–7172

Evaluation of quantum-cascade lasers as local oscillators for infrared heterodyne spectroscopy

Guido Sonnabend, Daniel Wirtz, and Rudolf Schieder  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 44, Issue 33, pp. 7170-7172 (2005)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.44.007170


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (401 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We report experiments evaluating the feasibility of quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs) at mid-infrared wavelengths for use as local oscillators (LOs) in a heterodyne receiver. Performance tests with continuous-wave (cw) lasers around 9.6 and 9.2 µm were carried out investigating optical output power, laser linewidth, and tunability. A direct comparison with a CO2 gas laser LO is presented as well. The achieved system sensitivity in a heterodyne spectrometer of only a factor of 2 above the quantum limit together with the measured linewidth of less than 1.5 MHz shows that QCLs are suitable laser sources for heterodyne spectroscopy with sufficient output power to replace gas lasers as LOs even in high-sensitivity astronomical heterodyne receivers. In addition, our experiments show that the tunability of the lasers can be greatly enhanced by use of an external cavity.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(120.6200) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Spectrometers and spectroscopic instrumentation
(140.3070) Lasers and laser optics : Infrared and far-infrared lasers
(140.3600) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, tunable
(280.0280) Remote sensing and sensors : Remote sensing and sensors
(300.6310) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, heterodyne

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

Citation
Guido Sonnabend, Daniel Wirtz, and Rudolf Schieder, "Evaluation of quantum-cascade lasers as local oscillators for infrared heterodyne spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 44, 7170-7172 (2005)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-44-33-7170


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset

References

  1. J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
  2. T. Kostiuk and M. J. Mumma, "Remote sensing by IR heterodyne spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 22, 2644-2654 (1983).
  3. F. Schmülling, "Entwicklung eines hochauflösenden InfrarotHeterodynspektrometers mit einem Bleisalz Diodenlaser als Lokaloszillator," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Cologne, 1997).
  4. G. Sonnabend, D. Wirtz, F. Schmülling, and R. Schieder, "Tuneable heterodyne infrared spectrometer for atmospheric and astronomical studies," Appl. Opt. 41, 2978-2984 (2002).
  5. S. W. Sharpe, J. F. Kelly, J. S. Hartman, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, "High-resolution (Doppler-limited) spectroscopy using quantum-cascade distributed-feedback lasers," Opt. Lett. 23, 1396-1398 (1998).
  6. R. M. Williams, J. F. Kelly, J. S. Hartman, S. W. Sharpe, M. S. Taubman, J. L. Hall, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, "Kilohertz linewidth from frequency-stabilized mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Lett. 24, 1844-1846 (1999).
  7. H. Ganser, B. Frech, A. Jentsch, M. Mürtz, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and W. Urban, "Investigation of the spectral width of quantum cascade laser emission near 5.2 µm by a heterodyne experiment," Opt. Commun. 197, 127-130 (2001). [CrossRef]
  8. D. Weidmann, L. Joly, V. Parpillon, D. Courtois, Y. Bonetti, T. Aellen, M. Beck, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, "Free-running 9.1 µm distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser linewidth measurement by heterodyning with a CO2 laser," Opt. Lett. 28, 704-706 (2003).
  9. F. Schmülling, B. Klumb, M. Harter, R. Schieder, B. Vowinkel, and G. Winnewisser, "High-sensitivity mid-infrared heterodyne spectrometer with a tunable diode laser as a local oscillator," Appl. Opt. 37, 5771-5776 (1998).
  10. A. Betz, M. Johnson, R. McLaren, and E. Sutton, "Heterodyne detection of CO2 emission lines and wind velocities in the atmosphere of Venus," Astrophys. J. 208, L141-L144 (1976). [CrossRef]
  11. T. Kostiuk, K. Fast, T. Livengood, T. Hewagama, J. Goldstein, F. Espenak, and D. Buhl, "Direct measurement of winds of Titan," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 2361-2364 (2001). [CrossRef]
  12. K. Fast, T. Kostiuk, P. Romani, F. Espenak, T. Hewagama, A. Betz, R. Boreiko, and T. Livengood, "Temporal behavior of stratospheric ammonia abundance and temperature following the SL9 impacts," Icarus 156, 485-497 (2002). [CrossRef]
  13. G. Sonnabend, D. Wirtz, V. Vetterle, and R. Schieder, "High-resolution observations of Martian non-thermal CO2 emission near 10 micron with a new tuneable heterodyne receiver," Astron. Astrophys. 435, 1181-1184 (2005). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited