OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 44, Iss. 9 — Mar. 21, 2005
  • pp: 1681–1690

Direct spectral measurements with a Brewer spectroradiometer: absolute calibration and aerosol optical depth retrieval

Stelios Kazadzis, Alkiviadis Bais, Natalia Kouremeti, Evangelos Gerasopoulos, Katerina Garane, Mario Blumthaler, Barbara Schallhart, and Alexander Cede  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 44, Issue 9, pp. 1681-1690 (2005)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (150 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We present three different methods for the absolute calibration of direct spectral irradiances measured with a Brewer spectroradiometer, which are shown to agree to within ±2%. Direct irradiance spectra derived by Brewer and Bentham spectroradiometers agree to within 4 ± 3%. Good agreement was also found by a comparison of the aerosol optical depth and Angstrom exponent retrieved by the two instruments and a multifilter rotational shadowband radiometer. The spectral aerosol optical depth (300–365 nm) derived from six years of direct irradiance measurements at Thessaloniki shows a distinct seasonal variation, averaging to ~0.3 at 340 nm in winter and ~0.7 in summer.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: August 9, 2004
Revised Manuscript: October 30, 2004
Manuscript Accepted: November 8, 2004
Published: March 20, 2005

Stelios Kazadzis, Alkiviadis Bais, Natalia Kouremeti, Evangelos Gerasopoulos, Katerina Garane, Mario Blumthaler, Barbara Schallhart, and Alexander Cede, "Direct spectral measurements with a Brewer spectroradiometer: absolute calibration and aerosol optical depth retrieval," Appl. Opt. 44, 1681-1690 (2005)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, “Evidence for large upward trends of ultraviolet-B radiation linked to ozone depletion,” Science 262, 1032–1034 (1995). [CrossRef]
  2. C. S. Zerefos, A. F. Bais, C. Meleti, I. Ziomas, “A note on the recent increase of solar UV-B radiation over northern middle latitudes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1245–1247 (1995). [CrossRef]
  3. United Nations Environmental Programme, Environmental Effects of Ozone Depletion and Its Interactions with Climate Change: 2002 Assessment (United Nations, New York, 2003).
  4. J. Groebner, “Characterisation of the spectrophotometers used for spectral solar ultraviolet radiation measurements,” Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 97, 415–418 (2001). [CrossRef]
  5. G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, C. Roy with contributions from K. Dehne, U. Feister, B. Mayer, P. Taalas, E. Weatherhead, A. Webb, “Instruments to measure solar ultraviolet radiation. Part 1: Spectral instruments,” World Meteorological Organization, Global Atmospheric Watch Publication No. 125, WMO TD No. 1066 (World Meteorological Organization, Geneve, Switzerland, 2001).
  6. A. R. Webb, B. G. Gardiner, T. J. Martin, K. Leszcynski, J. Metzdorf, V. A. Mohnen with contributions from D. Wardle, G. Seckmeyer, G. Bernhard, “Guidelines for site quality control of UV monitoring,” World Meteorological Organization, Global Atmospheric Watch Publication No. 126, WMO TD No. 884 (World Meteorological Organization, Geneve, Switzerland, 2001).
  7. T. Koskela, The Nordic Intercomparison of Ultraviolet and Total Ozone Instruments at Izaña from 24 October to 5 November 1993, Meteorological Pub. 27 (Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland, 1994).
  8. B. G. Gardiner, P. J. Kirsch, eds., Second European Intercomparison of Ultraviolet Spectroradiometers, (European Commission, Luxembourg, 1993).
  9. B. G. Gardiner, P. J. Kirsch, eds., Setting Standards for European Ultraviolet Spectroradiometers, (European Commission, Luxembourg, 1995).
  10. B. G. Gardiner, P. J. Kirsch, “Intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers, in Advances in Solar Ultraviolet Spectroradiometry, , A. R. Webb, ed. (European Commission, Luxembourg, 1997), pp. 67–151.
  11. B. Kjeldstad, B. Johnsson, T. Koskela, eds., The Nordic Intercomparison of Ultraviolet and Total Ozone Instruments at Izaña, October 1996, Meteorological Pub. 36 (Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland, 1997).
  12. E. Early, A. Thompson, C. Johnson, J. DeLuisi, P. Disterhodt, D. Wardle, E. Wu, W. Mou, Y. Sun, T. Lucas, T. Mestechkina, L. Harrison, J. Berndt, D. S. Hayes, “The 1995 North American interagency intercomparison of ultraviolet monitoring spectroradiometers,” J. Res. Inst. Stand. Technol. 103, 15–62 (1998). [CrossRef]
  13. A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, C. Brogniez, W. Josefsson, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 509–512, 526 (2001).
  14. F. Marenco, V. Santacesaria, A. F. Bais, D. Balis, A. di Sarra, A. Papayannis, C. Zerefos, “Optical properties of tropospheric aerosols determined by lidar and spectrophotometric measurements (Photochemical Activity and Solar Ultraviolet Radiation campaign),” Appl. Opt. 36, 6875–6886 (1997). [CrossRef]
  15. M. Huber, M. Blumthaler, W. Ambach, J. Staehelin, “Total atmospheric ozone determined from spectral measurements of direct solar UV irradiance,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 53–56 (1995). [CrossRef]
  16. V. Fioletov, J. B. Kerr, D. I. Wardle, “The relationship between total ozone and spectral UV irradiance from Brewer observations and its use for derivation of total ozone from UV measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 2997–3000 (1997). [CrossRef]
  17. J. L. Petters, V. K. Saxena, J. R. Slusser, B. N. Wenny, S. Madronich, “Aerosol single scattering albedo retrieved from measurements of surface UV irradiance and a radiative transfer model,” J. Geophys. Res. 108D, 4288–4294 (2003). [CrossRef]
  18. A. R. Webb, R. Kift, S. Thiel, M. Blumthaler, “An empirical method for the conversion of spectral UV irradiance measurements to actinic flux data,” Atmos. Environ. 36, 4397–4404 (2002). [CrossRef]
  19. M. Van Weele, J. Villa-Guerau, De Arellano, F. Kuik, “Combined measurements of UV-A actinic flux, UV-A irradiance and global radiation in relation to photodissociation rates,” Tellus Ser. B 47, 353–364 (1995). [CrossRef]
  20. S. Kazadzis, A. F. Bais, D. Balis, C. Zerefos, M. Blumthaler, “Retrieval of downwelling actinic flux density spectra from spectral measurements of global and direct solar UV irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105D, 4857–4864 (2000). [CrossRef]
  21. A. F. Bais, S. Kazadzis, D. Balis, C. Zerefos, M. Blumthaler, “Correcting global solar ultraviolet spectra recorded by a Brewer spectroradiometer for its angular response error,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6339–6344 (1998). [CrossRef]
  22. G. Seckmeyer, G. Bernhard, “Cosine error correction of spectral UV irradiances,” in Atmospheric Radiation, K. H. Stamnes, ed., Proc. SPIE2049, 140–151 (1993). [CrossRef]
  23. A. F. Bais, “Absolute spectral measurements of the direct solar ultraviolet irradiance with a Brewer spectrophotometer,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5199–5204 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. J. Groebner, J. B. Kerr, “Ground-based determination of the spectral ultraviolet extraterrestrial solar irradiance: providing a link between space-based and ground-based solar UV measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106D, 7211–7217 (2001). [CrossRef]
  25. M. Blumthaler, M. Huber, W. Ambach, “Measurements of direct and global UV spectra under varying turbidity,” in Atmospheric Radiation, K. H. Stamnes, ed., Proc. SPIE2049, 195–198 (1993). [CrossRef]
  26. S. C. Liu, S. A. McKeen, S. Madronich, “Effect of anthropogenic aerosols on biologically active ultraviolet radiation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 2265–2268 (1991). [CrossRef]
  27. A. Kylling, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, C. S. Zerefos, E. Kosmidis, “Effect of aerosols on solar UV irradiances during the Photochemical Activity and Solar Ultraviolet Radiation campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 26051–26060 (1998). [CrossRef]
  28. D. S. Balis, V. Amiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Kazantzidis, S. Kazadzis, A. F. Bais, C. Meleti, A. Papayannis, V. Matthias, H. Dier, “Study of the effect of different type of aerosols on UV-B radiation from measurements during EARLINET,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 1–15 (2004). [CrossRef]
  29. B. N. Wenny, J. S. Schafer, J. J. DeLuisi, V. K. Saxena, W. F. Barnard, I. V. Petropavlovskikh, A. J. Vergamini, “A study of regional aerosol radiative properties and effects on ultraviolet-B radiation,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 17083–17097 (1998). [CrossRef]
  30. J. Groebner, R. Vergaz, V. E. Cachorro, D. V. Henriques, K. Lamb, A. Redondas, J. M. Vilaplana, D. Rembges, “Intercomparison of aerosol optical depth measurements in the UVB using Brewer spectrophotometers and a Li-Cor spectrophotometer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1691–1694 (2001). [CrossRef]
  31. F. Carvalho, D. Henriques, “Use of Brewer ozone spectrophotometer for aerosol optical depth measurements on ultraviolet region,” Adv. Space Res. 25, 997–1006 (2000). [CrossRef]
  32. A. Cheymol, H. De Backer, “Retrieval of the aerosol optical depth in the UV-B at Uccle from Brewer ozone measurements over a long time period 1984–2002,” J. Geophys. Res. 108D, 4800 (2003).
  33. F. Marenco, A. di Sarra, J. De Luisi, “Methodology for determining aerosol optical depth from Brewer 300–320-nm ozone measurements,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1805–1814 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. J. Groebner, “Ultraviolet solar radiation measurements using a high precision spectroradiometer,” Ph.D. dissertation (Leopold-Franzens-Universitat Innsbruck, Austria, 1996).
  35. E. Gerasopoulos, M. O. Andreae, C. Zerefos, T. W. Andreae, D. Balis, P. Formenti, P. Merlet, V. Amiridis, C. Papastefanou, “Climatological aspects of aerosol optical properties in Northern Greece,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 3, 2025–2041 (2003). [CrossRef]
  36. A. F. Bais, “Spectrometers, operational errors and uncertainties,” in Solar Ultraviolet Radiation, Modelling, Measurements and Effects, C. S. Zerefos, A. F. Bais, eds., NATO-ASI Series (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997), Vol. 52, pp. 165–174. [CrossRef]
  37. G. Bernhard, G. Seckmeyer, “The uncertainty of measurements of spectral solar UV irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 14321–14345 (1999). [CrossRef]
  38. A. Cede, G. Labow, M. Kowalewski, N. Krotkov, O. Dubovik, “Deriving aerosol parameters from absolute UV sky radiance measurements using a Brewer double spectrometer,” in Ultraviolet Ground- and Space-Based Measurements, Models, and Effects III, J. R. Slusser, J. R. Herman, W. Gao, eds., Proc. SPIE5156, 323–329 (2003). [CrossRef]
  39. M. Alaart, KNMI, De Bilt, The Netherlands (personal communication, 2003).
  40. L. Harrison, J. Michalsky, “Objective algorithms for the retrieval of optical depths from ground-based measurements,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5126–5132 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. J. Estupinan, M. Bergin, J. Slusser, R. Meltzer, “Measurements of aerosol optical depths in the UV-A: a comparison between USDA Yankee Environmental Systems UV-multifilter rotating shadowing radiometer and an EPA Brewer spectrophotometer,” in Ultraviolet Ground- and Space-Based Measurements, Models, and Effects, J. Slusser, J. Herman, W. Gao, eds., Proc. SPIE4482, 212–223 (2002). [CrossRef]
  42. J. Slusser, J. Gibson, D. Bigelow, D. Kolinski, P. Disterhoft, K. Lantz, A. Beaubien, “Langley method of calibrating UV filter radiometers,” J. Geophys. 105D, 484, (2000).
  43. M. E. Van Hoosier, “The Atlas-3 solar spectrum,” available via anonymous ftp (ftp://susim.nrl.navy.mil), 1996.
  44. J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974). [CrossRef]
  45. A. M. Bass, R. J. Paur, “The ultraviolet cross-section of ozone. I. The measurements,” in Atmospheric Ozone: Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, C. S. Zerefos, A. Ghazi, eds., (Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1985), pp. 601–606.
  46. A. Angstrom, “Techniques of determining the turbidity of the atmosphere,” Tellus 13, 214–223 (1961). [CrossRef]
  47. H. Slaper, H. Reinen, M. Blumthaler, M. Huber, F. Kuik, “Comparing ground level spectrally resolved solar UV measurements using various instruments: a technique resolving effects of wavelength shifts and slit width,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2721–2724 (1995). [CrossRef]
  48. A. Arola, T. Koskela, “On the sources of bias in aerosol optical depth retrieval in the UV range,” J. Geophys. Res. 109,(2004).
  49. A. A. Silva, V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff, “Aerosol optical thickness from Brewer spectrophotometers and an investigation into the stray-light effect,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2484–2489 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  50. D. S. Balis, V. Amiridis, C. Zerefos, E. Gerasopoulos, M. Andreae, P. Zanis, A. Kazantzidis, S. Kazadzis, A. Papayannis, “Raman lidar sunphotometric measurements of aerosol optical properties over Thessaloniki, Greece during a biomass burning episode,” Atmos. Environ. 37, 4529–4538 (2003). [CrossRef]
  51. A. Vasaras, A. F. Bais, U. Feister, C. S. Zerefos, “Comparison of two methods for cloud flagging of spectral UV measurements,” Atmos. Res. 57, 31–42 (2001). [CrossRef]
  52. M. D. Alexandrov, A. A. Lacis, B. E. Carlson, B. Cairns, “Remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols and trace gases by means of Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer. Part I: Retrieval algorithm,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 524–543 (2002). [CrossRef]
  53. B. N. Holben, D. Tanre, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097 (2001). [CrossRef]
  54. P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, T. W. Andreae, E. Galani, A. Vasaras, C. Zerefos, V. Amiridis, L. Orlovsky, A. Karnieli, M. Wendisch, H. Wex, B. Holben, W. Maenhaut, J. Lelieveld, “Aerosol optical properties and large scale transport of air masses: observations at a coastal and a semiarid site in the eastern Mediterranean during summer 1998,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9807–9826 (2001). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited