OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 45, Iss. 23 — Aug. 10, 2006
  • pp: 5929–5941

Pattern recognition with an adaptive joint transform correlator

Victor H. Diaz-Ramirez, Vitaly Kober, and Josue Alvarez-Borrego  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 45, Issue 23, pp. 5929-5941 (2006)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1608 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



An adaptive joint transform correlator for real-time pattern recognition is presented. A reference image for the correlator is generated with a new iterative algorithm. The training algorithm is based on synthetic discriminant functions. The obtained reference image contains the information needed to reliably discriminate a target against known false objects and a cluttered background. Calibration lookup tables of all optoelectronics elements used are included in the design of the adaptive joint transform correlator. Two methods for the implementation of the proposed joint transform correlator in an optodigital setup are considered. Experimental results are provided and compared with those of computer simulations.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(070.4550) Fourier optics and signal processing : Correlators
(070.5010) Fourier optics and signal processing : Pattern recognition

Original Manuscript: January 3, 2006
Revised Manuscript: March 1, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: March 1, 2006

Victor H. Diaz-Ramirez, Vitaly Kober, and Josue Alvarez-Borrego, "Pattern recognition with an adaptive joint transform correlator," Appl. Opt. 45, 5929-5941 (2006)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. A. Vanderlugt, "Signal detection by complex filtering," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-10, 139-145 (1964).
  2. C. S. Weaver and J. L. Goodman, "Technique for optically convolving two functions," Appl. Opt. 5, 1248-1249 (1966). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Nicolás, J. Campos, C. Iemmi, I. Moreno, and M. J. Yzuel, "Convergent optical correlator alignment based on frequency filtering," Appl. Opt. 41, 1505-1514 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. B. V. K. Vijaya Kumar and L. Hassebrook, "Performance measures for correlation filters," Appl. Opt. 29, 2997-3005 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. P. Yaroslavsky, "The theory of optimal methods for localization of objects in pictures," in Progress in Optics, E.Wolf, ed. (Elsevier North-Holland, 1993), Vol. XXXII, pp. 145-201. [CrossRef]
  6. V. Kober, L. P. Yaroslavsky, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, "Optimal filter approximation by means of a phase-only filter with quantization," Opt. Lett. 19, 978-980 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. F. Hester and D. Casasent, "Multivariant technique for multiclass pattern recognition," Appl. Opt. 19, 1758-1761 (1980). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. Casasent, "Unified synthetic discriminant function computational formulation," Appl. Opt. 23, 1620-1627 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Mahalanobis, B. V. K. Vijaya Kumar, and D. Casasent, "Minimum average correlation filters," Appl. Opt. 26, 3633-3640 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. B. V. K. Vijaya Kumar, "Tutorial survey of composite filter designs for optical correlators," Appl. Opt. 31, 4773-4801 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. B. Javidi, "Nonlinear joint power spectrum based optical correlation," Appl. Opt. 28, 2358-2366 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. B. Javidi and J. Wang, "Binary nonlinear joint transform correlation with median and subset median thresholding," Appl. Opt. 30, 967-976 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. L. P. Yaroslavky and E. Marom, "Nonlinearity optimization in nonlinear joint transform correlators," Appl. Opt. 36, 4816-4822 (1997). [CrossRef]
  14. Q. Tang and B. Javidi, "Sensitivity of the nonlinear joint transform correlator: experimental investigations," Appl. Opt. 31, 4016-4024 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. S. Alam and M. A. Karim, "Fringe-adjusted joint transform correlator," Appl. Opt. 32, 4344-4350 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. A. Gonzalez-Fraga, V. H. Díaz-Ramírez, V. Kober, and J. Álvarez-Borrego, "Improving the discrimination capability with an adaptive synthetic discriminant function filter," Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 3523, 83-90 (2005). [CrossRef]
  17. V. H. Díaz-Ramírez, V. Kober, and J. Álvarez-Borrego, "Real-time pattern recognition with adaptive correlation filters," in Applications of Digital Image Processing XXVIII, A. G. Tescher. ed., Proc. SPIE 5909,5909211-5909217 (2005).
  18. B. Javidi and J. Wang, "Limitation of the classic definition of the correlation signal-to-noise-ratio in optical pattern recognition with disjoint signal and scene noise," Appl. Opt. 31, 6826 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. B. Javidi and J. Wang, "Design of filters to detect a noisy target in nonoverlapping background noise," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 2604-2612 (1994). [CrossRef]
  20. V. Kober and J. Campos, "Accuracy of location measurement of a noisy target in a nonoverlapping background," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1653-1666 (1996). [CrossRef]
  21. H. K. Liu and T. H. Chao, "Liquid crystal television spatial light modulators," Appl. Opt. 28, 4772-4780 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. K. Lu and B. E. A. Saleh, "Theory and design of the liquid crystal TV as an optical spatial phase modulator," Opt. Eng. 29, 240-247 (1990). [CrossRef]
  23. C. Soutar and K. Lu, "Determination of the physical properties of an arbitrary twisted-nematic liquid crystal display cell," Opt. Eng. 33, 2704-2712 (1994). [CrossRef]
  24. R. Dou and M. K. Giles, "Simple technique for measuring the phase property of a twisted nematic liquid crystal television," Opt. Eng. 35, 808-813 (1996). [CrossRef]
  25. H. Kim and Y. H. Lee, "Unique measurement of the parameters of a twisted-nematic liquid-crystal display," Appl. Opt. 44, 1642-1649 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. I. Moreno, J. Campos, M. J. Yzuel, and V. Kober, "Implementation of bipolar real-valued input scenes in a real-time optical correlator: application to color pattern recognition," Opt. Eng. 37, 144-150 (1998). [CrossRef]
  27. J. Campos, A. Márquez, M. J. Yzuel, J. A. Davis, D. M. Cottrell, and I. Moreno, "Fully complex synthetic discriminant functions written onto phase-only modulators," Appl. Opt. 39, 5965-5970 (2000). [CrossRef]
  28. B. Javidi and J. L. Horner, "Single SLM joint transform correlator," Appl. Opt. 28, 1027-1032 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited