OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 46, Iss. 21 — Jul. 20, 2007
  • pp: 4541–4548

Real-time phase-front detector for heterodyne interferometers

Felipe Guzmán Cervantes, Gerhard Heinzel, Antonio F. García Marín, Vinzenz Wand, Frank Steier, Oliver Jennrich, and Karsten Danzmann  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 46, Issue 21, pp. 4541-4548 (2007)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (4976 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We present a real-time differential phase-front detector sensitive to better than 3 mrad rms, which corresponds to a precision of approximately 500   pm . This detector performs a spatially resolving measurement of the phase front of a heterodyne interferometer, with heterodyne frequencies up to approximately 10 kHz. This instrument was developed as part of the research for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna Technology Package interferometer and will assist in the manufacture of its flight model. Because of the advantages this instrument offers, it also has general applications in optical metrology.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.7350) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Wave-front sensing
(040.2840) Detectors : Heterodyne
(120.2650) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Fringe analysis
(120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry
(120.5050) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Phase measurement
(140.3300) Lasers and laser optics : Laser beam shaping

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: December 11, 2006
Revised Manuscript: April 16, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: April 20, 2007
Published: July 6, 2007

Felipe Guzmán Cervantes, Gerhard Heinzel, Antonio F. García Marín, Vinzenz Wand, Frank Steier, Oliver Jennrich, and Karsten Danzmann, "Real-time phase-front detector for heterodyne interferometers," Appl. Opt. 46, 4541-4548 (2007)

Sort:  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, 1986).
  2. HASO II User Manual, Imagine Optic, Rue Charles de Gaulle 18, F-91400 Orsay, France.
  3. G. Lai and T. Yatagai, "Generalized phase-shifting interferometry," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 822-826 (1991). [CrossRef]
  4. J. Millerd, N. Brock, J. Hayes, B. Kimbrough, M. Novak, M. North-Morris, and J. C. Wyant, "Modern approaches in phase measuring metrology," Proc. SPIE 5856, 14-22 (2005). [CrossRef]
  5. S. Kaiser, T. Maier, A. Grossmann, and C. Zimmermann, "Fizeau interferometer for phase-shift interferometry in ultrahigh vacuum," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3726-3727 (2001). [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Surrel, "Fringe analysis," Top. Appl. Phys. 77, 55-102 (2000). [CrossRef]
  7. K. Hibino, B. F. Oreb, D. I. Farrant, and K. G. Larkin, "Phase-shifting algorithms for nonlinear and spatially nonuniform phase shifts," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 918-930 (1997). [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Li, Z. Zhu, and X. Li, "Elimination of reference phase errors in phase-shifting interferometry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1335-1340 (2005). [CrossRef]
  9. R. Shagam and J. C. Wyant, "Optical frequency shifter for heterodyne interferometers using multiple rotating polarization retarders," Appl. Opt. 17, 3034-3035 (1978). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. F. Zhao, "Picometer laser metrology for the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM)," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 96 of Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CTuo5.
  11. G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, R. Schilling, A. Rüdiger, D. Robertson, M. te Plate, V. Wand, K. Arai, U. Johann, and K. Danzmann, "Interferometry for the LISA technology package (LTP) aboard SMART-2," Class. Quantum Grav. 20, 153-161 (2003). [CrossRef]
  12. H. Zhao and G. Zhang, "Nonlinear error by orientation and elliptic polarization in a two-beam interferometer," Opt. Eng. 41, 3204-3208 (2002). [CrossRef]
  13. V. Wand, J. Bogenstahl, O. Braxmaier, K. Danzmann, A. García, F. Guzmán, G. Heinzel, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, C. Killow, D. Robertson, Z. Sodnik, F. Steier, and H. Ward, "Noise sources in the LTP heterodyne interferometer," Class. Quantum Grav. 23, 159-167 (2006). [CrossRef]
  14. G. Heinzel, V. Wand, A. Garcia, O. Jennrich, C. Braxmaier, D. Robertson, K. Middleton, D. Hoyland, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, U. Johann, and K. Danzmann, "The LTP interferometer and phasemeter," Class. Quantum Grav. 21, 581-587 (2004). [CrossRef]
  15. D. Robertson, C. Killow, H. Ward, J. Hough, G. Heinzel, A. García, V. Wand, U. Johann, and C. Braxmaier, "LTP interferometer-noise sources and performance," Class. Quantum Grav. 22, 155-163 (2005). [CrossRef]
  16. K. Freischlad and C. L. Koliopoulos, "Fourier description of digital phase-measuring interferometry," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 542-551 (1990). [CrossRef]
  17. XFPA-320*256 User Manual, XenICs n.v., Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium, July 2003.
  18. D. C. Ghiglia and L. A. Romero, "Robust two-dimensional weighted and unweighted phase unwrapping that uses fast transforms and iterative methods," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 107-117 (1994). [CrossRef]
  19. T. J. Flynn, "Two-dimensional phase unwrapping with minimum weighted discontinuity," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2692-2701 (1997). [CrossRef]
  20. D. C. Ghiglia and M. D. Pritt, Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping: Theory, Algorithms, and Software (Wiley, 1998).
  21. G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, M. Caldwell, K. Danzmann, F. Draaisma, A. García, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, C. Killow, K. Middleton, M. te Plate, D. Robertson, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, F. Steier, V. Wand, and H. Ward, "Successful testing of the LISA Technology Package (LTP) interferometer engineering model," Class. Quantum Grav. 22, 149-154 (2005). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited