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Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 47, Iss. 10 — Apr. 1, 2008
  • pp: 1673–1683

Camera for coherent diffractive imaging and holography with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser

Saša Bajt, Henry N. Chapman, Eberhard A. Spiller, Jennifer B. Alameda, Bruce W. Woods, Matthias Frank, Michael J. Bogan, Anton Barty, Sebastien Boutet, Stefano Marchesini, Stefan P. Hau-Riege, Janos Hajdu, and David Shapiro  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 47, Issue 10, pp. 1673-1683 (2008)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.47.001673


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Abstract

We describe a camera to record coherent scattering patterns with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser (FEL). The camera consists of a laterally graded multilayer mirror, which reflects the diffraction pattern onto a CCD detector. The mirror acts as a bandpass filter for both the wavelength and the angle, which isolates the desired scattering pattern from nonsample scattering or incoherent emission from the sample. The mirror also solves the particular problem of the extreme intensity of the FEL pulses, which are focused to greater than 10 14 W / cm 2 . The strong undiffracted pulse passes through a hole in the mirror and propagates onto a beam dump at a distance behind the instrument rather than interacting with a beam stop placed near the CCD. The camera concept is extendable for the full range of the fundamental wavelength of the free electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH) FEL (i.e., between 6 and 60 nm ) and into the water window. We have fabricated and tested various multilayer mirrors for wavelengths of 32, 16, 13.5, and 4.5 nm . At the shorter wavelengths mirror roughness must be minimized to reduce scattering from the mirror. We have recorded over 30,000 diffraction patterns at the FLASH FEL with no observable mirror damage or degradation of performance.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(030.1670) Coherence and statistical optics : Coherent optical effects
(040.1490) Detectors : Cameras
(050.1940) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction
(140.2600) Lasers and laser optics : Free-electron lasers (FELs)
(310.1210) Thin films : Antireflection coatings
(340.7470) X-ray optics : X-ray mirrors

ToC Category:
Detectors

History
Original Manuscript: October 24, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: January 3, 2008
Published: March 31, 2008

Citation
Saša Bajt, Henry N. Chapman, Eberhard A. Spiller, Jennifer B. Alameda, Bruce W. Woods, Matthias Frank, Michael J. Bogan, Anton Barty, Sebastien Boutet, Stefano Marchesini, Stefan P. Hau-Riege, Janos Hajdu, and David Shapiro, "Camera for coherent diffractive imaging and holography with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser," Appl. Opt. 47, 1673-1683 (2008)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-47-10-1673

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