OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 47, Iss. 16 — Jun. 1, 2008
  • pp: 2993–2997

Fully reflective external-cavity setup for quantum-cascade lasers as a local oscillator in mid-infrared wavelength heterodyne spectroscopy

Dušan Stupar, Jürgen Krieg, Peter Krötz, Guido Sonnabend, Manuela Sornig, Thomas F. Giesen, and Rudolf Schieder  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 47, Issue 16, pp. 2993-2997 (2008)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (889 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



To our knowledge we present the first experiments with a fully reflective external-cavity quantum- cascade laser system at mid-infrared wavelengths for use as a local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver. The performance of the presented setup was investigated using absorption spectroscopy as well as heterodyne techniques. Tunability over 30 cm 1 at 1130 cm 1 was demonstrated using a grating spectrometer. A continuous tuning range of 0.28 cm 1 was verified by observing the spectra of an internally coupled confocal Fabry–Pérot interferometer and the absorption lines of gas phase SO 2 . In a second step the output from the system was used as a local oscillator signal for a heterodyne setup. We show that spectral stability and side mode suppression are excellent and that a compact external-cavity quantum-cascade laser system is well suited to be used as a local oscillator in infrared heterodyne spectrometers.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(140.3070) Lasers and laser optics : Infrared and far-infrared lasers
(140.3570) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, single-mode
(280.0280) Remote sensing and sensors : Remote sensing and sensors
(300.6310) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, heterodyne

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

Original Manuscript: December 14, 2007
Revised Manuscript: April 28, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: April 29, 2008
Published: May 22, 2008

Dušan Stupar, Jürgen Krieg, Peter Krötz, Guido Sonnabend, Manuela Sornig, Thomas F. Giesen, and Rudolf Schieder, "Fully reflective external-cavity setup for quantum-cascade lasers as a local oscillator in mid-infrared wavelength heterodyne spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 47, 2993-2997 (2008)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. G. Sonnabend, D. Wirtz, F. Schmülling, and R. Schieder, “Tunable heterodyne infrared spectrometer for atmospheric and astronomical studies,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2978-2984 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. Sonnabend, D. Wirtz, V. Vetterle, and R. Schieder, “High resolution observations of Martian non-thermal CO2 emission near 10 μm with a new tunable heterodyne receiver,” Astron. Astrophys. 435, 1181-1184 (2005). [CrossRef]
  3. M. Olbrich, V. Mittenzwei, O. Siebertz, F. Schmülling, and R. Schieder, “A 3 GHz instantaneous bandwidth acousto-optical spectrometer with 1 MHz resolution,” in Proceedings of the 18th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, Pasadena, California, USA (2007), pp. 231-235.
  4. M. Wingender, E. A. Michael, B. Vowinkel, and R. Schieder, “Diode laser spectrum investigations for terahertz local oscillator applications,” Opt. Commun. 217, 369-374 (2003). [CrossRef]
  5. G. Sonnabend, M. Sornig, P. Krötz, D. Stupar, and R. Schieder, “Ultra high spectral resolution observations of planetary atmospheres using the Cologne tuneable heterodyne infrared spectrometer,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109, 1016-1029 (2008), doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2007.12.003. [CrossRef]
  6. F. Schmülling, B. Klumb, M. Harter, R. Schieder, B. Vowinkel, and G. Winnewisser, “High-sensitivity mid-infrared heterodyne spectrometer with a tunable diode laser as a local oscillator,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5771-5776 (1998). [CrossRef]
  7. J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553-556 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. Sonnabend and R. Schieder, “Evaluation of quantum-cascade lasers as local oscillators for infrared heterodyne spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 44, 7170-7172 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. Peng, G. Luo, and H. Q. Le, “Broadband, continuous, and fine-tune properties of external-cavity thermoelectric-stabilized mid-infrared quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4877-4882 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. M. Williams, J. F. Kelly, J. S. Hartman, S. W. Sharpe, M. S. Taubman, J. L. Hall, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Kilohertz linewidth from frequency-stabilized mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1844-1846 (1999). [CrossRef]
  11. G. Wysocki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Kittel, R. Maulini, J. M. Bulliard, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade laser for high resolution spectroscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 769-777 (2005). [CrossRef]
  12. R. Maulini, A. Mohan, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “External cavity quantum-cascade-laser tuneable from 8.2 to 10.4 μm using a gain element with a heterogeneous cascade,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201113 (2006). [CrossRef]
  13. M. Reich, R. Schieder, H. J. Clar, and G. Winnewisser, “Internally coupled Fabry-Pérot interferometer for high precision wavelength control of tunable diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 25, 130-135 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. Schieder, I. Physikalisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Strasse 77, 50937 Cologne, Germany, is preparing a manuscript to be called “Noise at direct- and heterodyne-detection at infrared wavelengths.”

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited