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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 47, Iss. 17 — Jun. 10, 2008
  • pp: 3177–3184

Two-beam-current method for e-beam writing gray-scale masks and its application to high-resolution microstructures

Zhou Zhou and Sing H. Lee  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 47, Issue 17, pp. 3177-3184 (2008)

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A two-beam-current method is introduced for e-beam writing in the fabrication of gray-scale masks. Compared with the simpler single-current method, the two-beam-current method offers two important advantages: (a) it can achieve a much larger dynamic range for e-beam exposure; (b) the writing time for a gray-scale mask can be reduced when a large pattern is to be written. Here, the new method is first described in detail and its application to the fabrication of our new gray-scale mask is demonstrated. Then, the improved gray-scale masks were employed to fabricate large dynamic range, high-resolution micro-optical elements of less than a couple of micrometers depth, using deep ultraviolet lithography at 248 nm wavelength and an inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching system.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(220.2740) Optical design and fabrication : Geometric optical design
(220.4000) Optical design and fabrication : Microstructure fabrication
(350.3950) Other areas of optics : Micro-optics
(350.4600) Other areas of optics : Optical engineering

ToC Category:
Optical Design and Fabrication

Original Manuscript: March 10, 2008
Revised Manuscript: April 30, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: May 1, 2008
Published: June 4, 2008

Zhou Zhou and Sing H. Lee, "Two-beam-current method for e-beam writing gray-scale masks and its application to high-resolution microstructures," Appl. Opt. 47, 3177-3184 (2008)

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  1. Z. Zhou and S. H. Lee, “Fabrication of an improved gray-scale mask for refractive micro- and meso-optics,” Opt. Lett. 29, 457-458 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Leica VB Parameter Calculator, http://www.research.ibm.com/people/r/rooks/calc.html
  3. C. Wu, “Method of making high energy beam sensitive glasses,” U.S. patent 5,078,771 (7 January 1992).
  4. S. H. Lee, M. S. Jin, and M. L. Scott, “Method for fabricating continuous space variant attenuating lithography mask for fabrication of devices with three-dimensional structures and microelectronics,” U.S. patent 6,534,221 (18 March 2003).

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