OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 47, Iss. 7 — Mar. 1, 2008
  • pp: 894–900

Determination of refractive index, thickness, and the optical losses of thin films from prism–film coupling measurements

Julien Cardin and Dominique Leduc  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 47, Issue 7, pp. 894-900 (2008)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.47.000894


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (536 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We present a method of analysis of prism–film coupler spectroscopy based on the use of transfer matrix and genetic algorithm, which allows the simultaneous determination of refractive index, thickness, and optical losses of the measured layer.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(120.3940) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Metrology
(130.3130) Integrated optics : Integrated optics materials
(160.4760) Materials : Optical properties
(300.1030) Spectroscopy : Absorption

History
Original Manuscript: September 4, 2007
Revised Manuscript: December 17, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: January 3, 2008
Published: February 28, 2008

Citation
Julien Cardin and Dominique Leduc, "Determination of refractive index, thickness, and the optical losses of thin films from prism-film coupling measurements," Appl. Opt. 47, 894-900 (2008)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-47-7-894


Sort:  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. X. J. Zhang, X. Z. Fan, J. Liao, H. T. Wang, N. B. Ming, L. Qiu, and Y. Q. Shen, “Propagation properties of a light wave in a film quasiwaveguide structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5647-5657 (2002). [CrossRef]
  2. H. Wang, T. Aruga, and P. Ye, “Theory and properties of quasiwaveguide modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 611-613 (1996). [CrossRef]
  3. F. Abeles, “Methods for determining optical parameters of thin films,” Prog. Opt. 2, 248-288 (1963).
  4. J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, “A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and the thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film,”. J. Phys. E 9, 1002-1004 (1976). [CrossRef]
  5. J. C. Martínez-Antón, “Determination of optical parameters in general film substrate systems: a reformulation based on the concepts of envelope extremes and local magnitudes,” Appl. Opt 39, 4557-4568 (2000). [CrossRef]
  6. J. M. Bennett, E. Pelletier, G. Albrand, J.-P. Borgogno, B. Lazarides, C. K. Carniglia, R. A. Schmell, T. H. Allen, T. Tuttle-Hart, K. H. Guenther, and A. Saxer, “Comparison of the properties of titanium dioxide films prepared by various techniques,” Appl. Opt. 283303-3317 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. M. A. Azzam, “Return-path ellipsometry and a novel normal-incidence null ellipsometer (NINE),” J. Mod. Opt. 24, 1039-1049 (1977).
  8. A. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (Academic, 1977).
  9. H. G. Tompkins and W. A. McGahan, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry and Reflectometry: A User's Guide (Academic, 1999).
  10. F. Flory, D. Endelema, E. Pelletier, and I. J. Hodgkinson, “Anisotropy in thin films: modeling and measurement of guided and nonguided optical properties: application to TiO 2 films,” Appl. Opt 32, 5649-5659 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. Rigneault, F. Flory, and S. Monneret, “Nonlinear totally reflecting prism coupler: thermomechanic effects and intensity-dependent refractive index of thin films,” Appl. Opt 34, 4358-4369 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. P. K. Tien and R. Ulrich, “Theory of prism-film coupler and thin-film light guides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am 60, 1325-1337 (1970). [CrossRef]
  13. R. Ulrich, “Theory of the prism-film coupler by plane-wave analysis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am 60, 1337-1350 (1970). [CrossRef]
  14. S. Garcia-Blanco, E. Alfaro-Cid, R. M. De La Rue, and J. S. Aitchison, “Genetic algorithm-based characterization of the optical properties of flame-hydrolysis deposited silica waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2801-2807 (2004). [CrossRef]
  15. J. Chilwell and I. Hodgkinson, “Thin-films field-transfer matrix theory of planar multilayer waveguides and reflection from prism-loaded waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 742-753 (1984). [CrossRef]
  16. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Academic, 1980).
  17. Metricon Corporation, http://www.metricon.com/.
  18. J. Cardin, D. Leduc, T. Schneider, C. Lupi, D. Averty, and H. W. Gundel, “Optical characterization of PZT thin films for waveguide applications,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 25, 2913-2916 (2005). [CrossRef]
  19. P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Academic, 1988).
  20. A. B. H. Yedder, “Optimisation numerique et controle optimal: (applications en chimie moleculaire),” Ph.D. dissertation (Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussees2002).
  21. Z. Michalewicz, Genetic Algorithms+ Data Structures= Evolution Programs (Academic, 1996).
  22. K. Deb, “Genetic algorithm in search and optimization: the technique and applications,” in Proceedings of International Workshop on Soft Computing and Intelligent Systems (Academic, 1998), pp. 58-87.
  23. K. Deb, Genetic Algorithms for Optimization, KanGAL Report No. 2001002, (KanGal, 2001).
  24. V. S. Gordon and D. Whitley, “Serial and parallel genetic algorithms as function optimizers,” in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Genetic Algorithms (Academic, 1993), pp. 177-183.
  25. S. W. Mahfoud, “Niching methods for genetic algorithms,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Urbana, 1995).
  26. P. J. B. Hancock, “An empirical comparison of selection methods in evolutionary algorithms,” in Evolutionary Computing: AISB Workshop, Leeds, UK, (Academic, 1994), selected papers.
  27. K. Deb and R. B. Agrawal, “Simulated binary crossover for continuous search space,” in Complex Systems (Academic, 1995), pp. 115-148.
  28. Microchem Corporation, http://www.microchem.com/products/su_eight.htm.
  29. S. Adachi, “Model dielectric constants of Si and Ge ,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 12966-12976 (1988).
  30. Pra¨zisions Glas & Optik GmbH, http://www.pgo-online.com/.
  31. H. E. Bennett and J. O. Porteus, “Relation between surface roughness and specular reflectance at normal incidence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am , 51, 123-129 (1961). [CrossRef]
  32. H. Davies, “The reflection of electromagnetic waves from a rough surface,” in Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers (Academic, 1954), 209-214.
  33. E. Dumont, B. Dugnoille, and S. Bienfait, “Simultaneous determination of the optical properties and of the structure of rf-sputtered ZnO thin films,” Thin Solid Films 353, 93-99 (1999). [CrossRef]
  34. M. Rebien, W. Henrion, M. Bär, and C. H. Fischer, “Optical properties of ZnO thin films: ion layer gas reaction compared to sputter deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3518-3520(2002). [CrossRef]
  35. S. Laux, N. Kaiser, A. Zöller, R. Götzelmann, H. Lauth, and H. Bernitzki, “Room-temperature deposition of indium tin oxide thin films with plasma ion-assisted evaporation,” Thin Solid Films 335, 1-5 (1998). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited