OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 48, Iss. 1 — Jan. 1, 2009
  • pp: A63–A70

Lucky imaging and aperture synthesis with low-redundancy apertures

Jennifer E. Ward, William T. Rhodes, and John T. Sheridan  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 48, Issue 1, pp. A63-A70 (2009)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (433 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Lucky imaging, used with some success in astronomical and even horizontal-path imaging, relies on fleeting conditions of the atmosphere that allow momentary improvements in image quality, at least in portions of an image. Aperture synthesis allows a larger aperture and, thus, a higher-resolution imaging system to be synthesized through the superposition of image spatial-frequency components gathered by cooperative combinations of smaller subapertures. A combination of lucky imaging and aperture synthesis strengthens both methods for obtaining improved images through the turbulent atmosphere. We realize the lucky imaging condition appropriate for aperture synthesis imaging for a pair of rectangular subapertures and demonstrate that this condition occurs when the signal energy associated with bandpass spatial-frequency components achieves its maximum value.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(110.0115) Imaging systems : Imaging through turbulent media
(100.3175) Image processing : Interferometric imaging

Original Manuscript: June 9, 2008
Revised Manuscript: September 29, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: September 30, 2008
Published: November 19, 2008

Jennifer E. Ward, William T. Rhodes, and John T. Sheridan, "Lucky imaging and aperture synthesis with low-redundancy apertures," Appl. Opt. 48, A63-A70 (2009)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. “Woods Hole summer study 1968: synthetic-aperture optics,” in Proceedings of the August 1967 Woods Hole Summer Study (U.S. National Academy of Sciences, 1968), Vols. I and II.
  2. G. W. Stroke, “Optical aperture synthesis using successive exposure of a single photograph and spatial filtering “low-frequency redundancy” suppression,” Phys. Lett. A 30, 485-486 (1969). [CrossRef]
  3. M. Ryle, A. Hewish, and J. R. Shakeshaft, “The synthesis of large radio telescopes by the use of radio interferometers,” IRE Trans. Antennas Propag. 7, 120-124(1959). [CrossRef]
  4. M. Ryle, “A new radio interferometer and its application to the observation of weak radio stars,” Proc. R. Soc. London. Ser. A 211, 351-375 (1952).
  5. A. Labeyrie, S. G. Lipson, and P. Nisenson, An Introduction to Optical Stellar Interferometry (Cambridge University Press, 2006), Chaps. 5 and 6. [CrossRef]
  6. P. G. Tuthill, J. D. Monnier, W. C. Danchi, E. H. Wishnow, and C. A Haniff, “Michelson interferometry with the Keck I telescope,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112 (770), 555-565 (2000). [CrossRef]
  7. D. H. Rogstad, “A technique for measuring visibility phase with an optical interferometer in the presence of atmospheric seeing,” Appl. Opt. 7, 585-588 (1968). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. T. Rhodes and J. W. Goodman, “Interferometric technique for recording and restoring images degraded by unknown aberrations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 647-657 (1973). [CrossRef]
  9. W. T. Rhodes, “Digital processing of synthetic aperture optical imagery,” Opt. Eng. 13, 267-274 (1974).
  10. D. L. Fried, “Probability of getting a lucky short-exposure image through turbulence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1651-1658 (1978). [CrossRef]
  11. N. M. Law, C. D. Mackay, and J. E. Baldwin, “Lucky imaging: high angular resolution imaing in the visible from the ground,” Astron. Astrophys. 446, 739-745 (2006). [CrossRef]
  12. C. Mackay, J. Baldwin, N. Law, and P. Warner, “High resolution imaging in the visible from the ground without adaptive optics: new techniques and results,” Proc. SPIE 5492, 128-135 (2004). [CrossRef]
  13. G. W. Carhart and M. A. Vorontsov, “Synthetic imaging: nonadaptive anisoplanatic image correction in atmospheric turbulence,” Opt. Lett. 23, 745-747 (1998). [CrossRef]
  14. M. A. Vorontsov and Gary W. Carhart, “Anisoplanatic imaging through turbulent media: image recovery by local information fusion from a set of short-exposure images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1312-1324 (2001). [CrossRef]
  15. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 3rd ed.(Roberts & Company, 2005), Section 6.3.
  16. N. Roddier, “Atmospheric wavefront simulation using Zernike polynomials,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1174-1180 (1990). [CrossRef]
  17. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 3rd ed.(Roberts & Company, 2005), Section 6.4.3.
  18. Mathematica 6.0, from the test images file: Boat.
  19. W. T. Rhodes, “Phase closure and lucky imaging,” Appl. Opt. 48, (this issue).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited