OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 48, Iss. 13 — May. 1, 2009
  • pp: 2473–2479

Fabrication of microlens arrays based on the mass transport effect of SU-8 photoresist using a multiexposure two-beam interference technique

Cheng Yi Wu, Ting Hsuan Chiang, Ngoc Diep Lai, Danh Bich Do, and Chia Chen Hsu  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 48, Issue 13, pp. 2473-2479 (2009)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (826 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Microlens arrays (MLAs) were fabricated based on the mass transport effect of SU-8 photoresist by a multiexposure two-beam interference technique. In particular, a direct single-step fabrication process, i.e., without developing, mask, and pattern transferring processes, is demonstrated. The effects of various parameters such as thicknesses, exposure dosage, and angle between two laser beams on MLAs were investigated. Square and hexagonal lattices of microlenses were obtained by controlling rotation angles between different exposures on SU-8 samples. In addition, microlenses with elliptical shape were fabricated by a double exposure at 0 ° and 60 ° . Finally, the surface profiles of microlenses in MLAs were characterized by atomic force microscopy.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(090.0090) Holography : Holography
(110.3960) Imaging systems : Microlithography
(110.5220) Imaging systems : Photolithography
(260.3160) Physical optics : Interference

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: February 11, 2009
Revised Manuscript: April 8, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: April 10, 2009
Published: April 24, 2009

Cheng Yi Wu, Ting Hsuan Chiang, Ngoc Diep Lai, Danh Bich Do, and Chia Chen Hsu, "Fabrication of microlens arrays based on the mass transport effect of SU-8 photoresist using a multiexposure two-beam interference technique," Appl. Opt. 48, 2473-2479 (2009)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. W. Yu and X. -C. Yuan, “A simple method for fabrication of thick solgel microlens as a single-mode fiber coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1410-1412 (2003). [CrossRef]
  2. P. J. Rodrigo, R. L. Eriksen, V. R. Daria, and J. Glückstad, “Shack-Hartmann multiple-beam optical tweezers,” Opt. Express 11, 208-214 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M.-K. Wei and I.-L. Su, “Method to evaluate the enhancement of luminance efficiency in planar OLED light emitting devices for microlens array,” Opt. Express 12, 5777-5782(2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. Yang, C.-K. Chao, M.-K. Wei, and C.-P. Lin, “High fill-factor microlens array mold insert fabrication using a thermal reflow process,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, 1197-1204 (2004). [CrossRef]
  5. H. Ottevaere, B. Volckaerts, J. Lamprecht, J. Schwider, A. Hermanne, I. Vertennicoff, and H. Thienpont, “Two-dimensional plastic microlens arrays by deep lithography with protons: fabrication and characterization,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 4, S22-S28 (2002). [CrossRef]
  6. S.-K. Lee, K.-C. Lee, and S. S. Lee, “A simple method for microlens fabrication by the modified LIGA process,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 12, 334-340 (2002). [CrossRef]
  7. J.-J. Yang, Y.-S. Liao, and C.-F. Chen, “Fabrication of long hexagonal micro-lens array by applying gray-scale lithography in microreplication process,” Opt. Commun. 270, 433-440(2007). [CrossRef]
  8. D. L. MacFarlane, V. Narayan, J. A. Tatum, W. R. Cox, T. Chen, and D. J. Hayes, “Microjet fabrication of microlens arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1112-1114 (1994). [CrossRef]
  9. M. F. Jensen, U. Krühne, L. H. Christensen, and O. Geschke, “Refractive microlenses produced by excimer laser irradiation of poly (methyl methacrylate),” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15, 91-97 (2005). [CrossRef]
  10. N. S. Ong, Y. H. Koh, and Y. Q. Fu, “Microlens array produced using hot embossing process,” Microelectron. Eng. 60, 365-379 (2002). [CrossRef]
  11. M. He, X. -C. Yuan, N. Q. Ngo, J. Bu, and S. H. Tao, “Low-cost and efficient coupling technique using reflowed solgel microlens,” Opt. Express 11, 1621-1627 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. He, X. Yuan, N. Q. Ngo, W. C. Cheong, and J. Bu, “Reflow technique for the fabrication of an elliptical microlens array in solgel material,” Appl. Opt. 42, 7174-7178 (2003). [CrossRef]
  13. J.-Y. Huang, Y.-S. Lu, and J. A. Yeh, “Self-assembled high NA microlens arrays using global dielectricphoretic energy wells,” Opt. Express 14, 10779-10784 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. C. Y. Wu, T. H. Chiang, and C. C. Hsu, “Fabrication of microlens array diffuser films with controllable haze distribution by combination of breath figures and replica molding methods,” Opt. Express 16, 19978-19986 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. C. Croutxé-Barghorn, O. Soppera, and D. J. Lougnot, “Fabrication of refractive microlens arrays by visible irradiation of acrylic monomers: influence of photonic parameters,” Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 13, 31-37 (2001). [CrossRef]
  16. D. J. Kang, J.-P. Jeong, and B.-S. Bae, “Direct photofabrication of focal-length-controlled microlens array using photoinduced migration mechanisms of photosensitive solgel hybrid materials,” Opt. Express 14, 8347-8353 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. C. Hutley, “Optical techniques for the generation of microlens arrays,” J. Mod. Opt. 37, 253-265 (1990). [CrossRef]
  18. C. S. Lim, M. H. Hong, Y. Lin, Q. Xie, B. S. Luk'yanchuk, A. S. Kumar, and M. Rahman, “Microlens array fabrication by laser interference lithography for super-resolution surface nanopatterning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191125 (2006). [CrossRef]
  19. S. Lee, Y.-C. Jeong, and J.-K. Park, “Facile fabrication of close-packed microlens arrays using photoinduced surface relief structures as templates,” Opt. Express 15, 14550-14559 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. D. C. Meisel, M. Diem, M. Deubel, F.-P. Willard, S. Linden, D. Gerthsen, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, “Shrinkage precompensation of holographic three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates,” Adv. Mater. 18, 2964-2968 (2006). [CrossRef]
  21. N. D. Lai, J. H. Lin, W. P. Liang, C. C. Hsu, and C. H. Lin, “Precisely introducing defects into periodic structures by using a double-step laser scanning technique,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5777-5782 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. N. D. Lai, W. P. Liang, J. H. Lin, C. C. Hsu, and C. H. Lin, “Fabrication of two- and three-dimensional periodic structures by multiexposure of two-beam interference technique,” Opt. Express 13, 9605-9611 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. S. -I. Chang and J. -B. Yoon, “Shape-controlled, high fill-factor microlens arrays fabricated by a 3D diffuser lithography and plastic replication method,” Opt. Express 12, 6366-6371 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited