OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 48, Iss. 15 — May. 20, 2009
  • pp: 2915–2923

Self-mixing technique for vibration measurements in a laser diode with multiple modes created by optical feedback

Marta Ruiz-Llata and Horacio Lamela  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 48, Issue 15, pp. 2915-2923 (2009)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1263 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We present experimental and theoretical results obtained from the study of the effects of optical feedback in low-cost Fabry–Perot laser diodes due to the presence of an external cavity created by an external reflective or diffusive vibrating target. Experimental results show that a change in the length of the external cavity produces the well-known amplitude modulation of the optical output power and, depending on the amount of optical feedback, a subperiodicity appears in the amplitude modulation of the output power. The experiments show that the subperiodicity appears independently of the length of the external cavity and is due to mode hopping between different longitudinal laser modes. Numerical analysis focused on the effects observed support that the mode hop occurs between modes whose round-trip phase delay along the external cavity is out of phase, thus producing a subperiodicity of the total amplitude modulation.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry
(120.7280) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Vibration analysis
(140.5960) Lasers and laser optics : Semiconductor lasers
(280.3420) Remote sensing and sensors : Laser sensors

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

Original Manuscript: July 3, 2008
Revised Manuscript: March 19, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: March 27, 2009
Published: May 15, 2009

Marta Ruiz-Llata and Horacio Lamela, "Self-mixing technique for vibration measurements in a laser diode with multiple modes created by optical feedback," Appl. Opt. 48, 2915-2923 (2009)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. A. García-Souto y H. Lamela, “High resolution (<1 nm) interferometric fiber-optic sensor of vibrations in high-power transformers,” Opt. Express 14, 9679-9686(2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. C. Morgan, M. Bordovski, I. White, and R. Griffiths, “Non contact vibration sensors based on current modulated external cavity semiconductor lasers,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 147, 413-416(2000). [CrossRef]
  3. S. Donati, G. Giuliani, and S. Merlo, “Laser diode feedback interferometer for measurement of displacement without ambiguity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 113-119 (1995). [CrossRef]
  4. P. Nerin, P. Besesty, P. Labeye, P. Puget, and G. Ghartier, “Absolute distance and velocity measurements by the FMCW technique and self-mixing interference effect inside a single-mode Nd:YAG-LiTaO3 microchip laser,” J. Opt. 29, 162-167 (1998). [CrossRef]
  5. D. Guo and M. Wang, “Self-mixing interferometry based on a double-modulation technique for absolute distance measurement,” Appl. Opt. 46, 1486-1491 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. N. Servagent, T. Bosch, and M. Lescure, “Design of a phase-shifting optical feedback interferometer using an electrooptic modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 798-802 (2000). [CrossRef]
  7. G. Giuliani, S. Donati, M. Passerini, and T. Bosch, “Angle measurements by injection detection in a laser diode,” Opt. Eng. 40, 95-99 (2001). [CrossRef]
  8. R. W. Tkach and A. R. Chraplyvy, “Regimes of feedback effects in 1.5 μm distributed feedback lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 1655-1661 (1986). [CrossRef]
  9. P. Besnard, B. Meziane, and G. M. Stéphan, “Feedback phenomena in a semiconductor laser induced by distant reflectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1271-1284(1993). [CrossRef]
  10. W. M. Wang, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, and W. J. O. Boyle, “Self-mixing interference inside a single-mode diode laser for optical sensing applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1577-1587 (1994). [CrossRef]
  11. K. Petermann, in Laser Diode Modulation and Noise (Kluwer Academic, 1988), Chap. 3, pp 57-77, and Chap. 9, pp 250-290.
  12. P. J. de Groot, “Range-dependent optical feedback effects on the multimode spectrum of laser diodes,” J. Mod. Opt. 37,1199-1214 (1990). [CrossRef]
  13. L. Lu, H. Gui, J. Xie, T. Zhao, X. Chen, A. Wang, F. Li, D. He, J. Xu, and H. Ming, “Effect of external cavity length on self-mixing signals in a multilongitudinal-mode Fabry-Perot laser diode,” Appl. Opt. 44, 568-571 (2005). [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Tan and S. Zhang, “Influence of external cavity length on multimode hopping in microchip Nd:YAG lasers,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1697-1704 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited