OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 48, Iss. 26 — Sep. 10, 2009
  • pp: 4932–4941

Performance, structure, and stability of SiC/Al multilayer films for extreme ultraviolet applications

David L. Windt and Jeffrey A. Bellotti  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 48, Issue 26, pp. 4932-4941 (2009)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1341 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We report on the performance, structure and stability of periodic multilayer films containing silicon carbide (SiC) and aluminum (Al) layers designed for use as reflective coatings in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV). We find that SiC/Al multilayers prepared by magnetron sputtering have low stress, good temporal and thermal stability, and provide good performance in the EUV, particularly for applications requiring a narrow spectral bandpass, such as monochromatic solar imaging. Transmission electron microscopy reveals amorphous SiC layers and polycrystalline Al layers having a strong 111 texture, and relatively large roughness associated with the Al crystallites. Fits to EUV reflectance measurements also indicate large interface widths, consistent with the electron microscopy results. SiC/Al multilayers deposited by reactive sputtering with nitrogen comprise Al layers that are nearly amorphous and consid erably smoother than films deposited nonreactively, but no improvements in EUV reflectance were obtained.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(230.4170) Optical devices : Multilayers
(310.1620) Thin films : Interference coatings
(310.6860) Thin films : Thin films, optical properties
(340.0340) X-ray optics : X-ray optics
(350.1260) Other areas of optics : Astronomical optics

ToC Category:
Optical Devices

Original Manuscript: July 14, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: August 8, 2009
Published: September 1, 2009

David L. Windt and Jeffrey A. Bellotti, "Performance, structure, and stability of SiC/Al multilayer films for extreme ultraviolet applications," Appl. Opt. 48, 4932-4941 (2009)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. P. Delaboudinière, G. E. Artzner, J. Brunaud, A. H. Gabriel, J. F. Hochdez, F. Millier, X. Y. Song, B. Au, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, R. Kreplin, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, J. M. Defise, C. Jamar, P. Rochus, J. P. Chauvineau, J. P. Marioge, R. C. Catura, J. R. Lemen, L. Shing, R. A. Stern, J. B. Gurman, W. M. Neupert, A. Maucherat, F. Clette, P. Cugnon, and E. L. Van Dessel, “EIT: extreme-ultraviolet imaging telescope for the SOHO mission,” Sol. Phys. 162, 291-312 (1995). [CrossRef]
  2. J. F. Seely, C. M. Brown, D. L. Windt, S. Donguy, and B. Kjornrattanawanich, “Normal-incidence efficiencies of multilayer-coated laminar gratings for the extreme-ultraviolet imaging spectrometer on the Solar-B mission,” Appl. Opt. 43, 1463-1471 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. Soufli, D. L. Windt, J. C. Robinson, E. Spiller, F. J. Dollar, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, B. Kjornrattanawanich, J. F. Seely, and L. Golub, “Development and testing of EUV multilayer coatings for the atmospheric imaging assembly instrument aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5901, 59010M (2005). [CrossRef]
  4. I. Yoshikawa, T. Murachi, H. Takenaka, and S. Ichimaru, “Multilayer coating for 30.4 nm,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 066109 (2005). [CrossRef]
  5. J. M. Slaughter, B. S. Medower, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, and C. M. Falco, “Si/B4C narrow-bandpass mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1786-1788(1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. L. Windt, S. Donguy, J. F. Seely, B. Kjornrattanawanich, “Experimental comparison of extreme-ultraviolet multilayers for solar physics,” Appl. Opt. 43, 1835-1848 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Yu. A. Uspenskii, V. E. Levashov, A. V. Vinogradov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Yu. P. Pershin, E. N. Zubarev, and V. Yu. Fedotov, “High-reflectivity multilayer mirrors for a vacuum-ultraviolet interval of 35-50 nm,” Opt. Lett. 23, 771-773 (1998). [CrossRef]
  8. B. Kjornrattanawanich, D. L. Windt, and J. F. Seely, “Normal-incidence silicon-gadolinium multilayers for imaging at 63 nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 33, 965-967 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Fernández-Perea, M. Vidal-Dasilva, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, and J. A. Aznárez, “Narrowband filters and broadband mirrors for the spectral range from 50 to 200 nm,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 70182W (2008). [CrossRef]
  10. Unpublished results for Al/Zr multilayers by F. Salmassi and E. M. Gullikson, and by J. Kortright, as listed at http://henke.lbl.gov/cgi-bin/mldata.pl
  11. D. L. Windt, unpublished.
  12. T. Sakao, S. Tsuneta, H. Hara, R. Kano, T. Yoshida, S. Nagata, T. Shimizu, T. Kosugi, K. Murakami, W. Wasa, M. Inoue, K. Miura, K. Taguchi, and K. Tanimoto, “Japanese sounding rocket experiment with the solar XUV Doppler telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2804, 153-164 (1996). [CrossRef]
  13. P. Jonnard, K. Le Guen, M.-H. Hu, J.-M. André, E. Meltchakov, C. Hecquet, F. Delmotte, and A. Galtayries, “Optical, chemical and depth characterization of Al/SiC periodic multilayers,” Proc. SPIE. 7360, 73600O (2009). [CrossRef]
  14. X. Deng, C. Cleveland, T. Karcher, M. Koopman, N. Chawla, and K. K. Chawla, “Nanoindentation behavior of nanolayered metal-ceramic composites,” J. Mater. Eng. Perform. 14, 417-423 (2005). [CrossRef]
  15. D. L. Windt and W. K. Waskiewicz, “Multilayer facilities required for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 3826-3832 (1994). [CrossRef]
  16. D. L. Windt, “IMD--Software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12, 360-370(1998). [CrossRef]
  17. G. G. Stoney, “The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis,” Proc. R. Soc. London A82, 172-175 (1909).
  18. J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, and W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3372 (1996). [CrossRef]
  19. Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E. D. Palik, ed. (Academic, 1985).
  20. D. Windt, “Reduction of stress and roughness by reactive sputtering in W/B4C multilayer films,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 66880R (2007). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited