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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 48, Iss. 29 — Oct. 10, 2009
  • pp: 5502–5508

Performance optimization of Si/Gd extreme ultraviolet multilayers

David L. Windt, Jeffrey A. Bellotti, Benjawan Kjornrattanawanich, and John F. Seely  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 48, Issue 29, pp. 5502-5508 (2009)

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We compare the performance, stability and microstructure of Si/Gd multilayers containing thin barrier layers of W, B 4 C , or Si N x , and determine that multilayers containing 0.6 nm thick W barrier layers at each interface provide the best compromise between high peak reflectance in the extreme ultraviolet near λ = 60 nm and good stability upon heating. The Si/W/Gd films have sharper interfaces and also show vastly superior thermal stability relative to Si/Gd multilayers without barrier layers. We find that these structures have relatively small compressive film stresses, and show good temporal stability thus far. We measured a peak reflectance of 29.7% at λ = 62.5 nm , and a spectral bandpass of Δ λ = 9 nm (FWHM), for an optimized Si/W/Gd multilayer having a period d = 32.0 nm .

© 2009 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(230.4170) Optical devices : Multilayers
(310.1620) Thin films : Interference coatings
(310.6860) Thin films : Thin films, optical properties
(340.0340) X-ray optics : X-ray optics
(350.1260) Other areas of optics : Astronomical optics

ToC Category:
Optical Devices

Original Manuscript: July 17, 2009
Revised Manuscript: September 14, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: September 15, 2009
Published: October 1, 2009

David L. Windt, Jeffrey A. Bellotti, Benjawan Kjornrattanawanich, and John F. Seely, "Performance optimization of Si/Gd extreme ultraviolet multilayers," Appl. Opt. 48, 5502-5508 (2009)

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  1. J. P. Delaboudinière, G. E. Artzner, J. Brunaud, A. H. Gabriel, J. F. Hochdez, F. Millier, X. Y. Song, B. Au, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, R. Kreplin, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, J. M. Defise, C. Jamar, P. Rochus, J. P. Chauvineau, J. P. Marioge, R. C. Catura, J. R. Lemen, L. Shing, R. A. Stern, J. B. Gurman, W. M. Neupert, A. Maucherat, F. Clette, P. Cugnon, and E. L. Van Dessel, “EIT: extreme-ultraviolet imaging telescope for the SoHO mission,” Sol. Phys. 162, 291-312 (1995). [CrossRef]
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  3. B. Kjornrattanawanich, D. L. Windt, and J. F. Seely, “Normal-incidence silicon-gadolinium multilayers for imaging at 63 nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 33, 965-967 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. B. Kjornrattanawanich, D. L. Windt, J. A. Bellotti, and J. F. Seely, “Measurement of dysprosium optical constants in the 2-830 eV spectral range using a transmittance method, and compilation of the revised optical constants of lanthanum, terbium, neodymium, and gadolinium,” Appl. Opt. 48, 3084-3093 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. L. Windt and W. K. Waskiewicz, “Multilayer facilities required for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 3826-3832 (1994). [CrossRef]
  6. D. L. Windt, “IMD--software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12, 360-370 (1998). [CrossRef]
  7. G. G. Stoney, “The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis,” Proc. R. Soc. A 82, 172-175 (1909). [CrossRef]
  8. R. R. Kola, D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, B. E. Weir, R. Hull, G. K. Celler, and C. A. Volkert, “Stress relaxation in Mo/Si X-ray multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3120-3122(1992). [CrossRef]

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