OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 48, Iss. 8 — Mar. 10, 2009
  • pp: 1573–1582

Characterization of graded index optical fibers by digital holographic interferometry

Hamdy H. Wahba and Thomas Kreis  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 48, Issue 8, pp. 1573-1582 (2009)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.48.001573


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1678 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

For the first time to our knowledge, digital holography is used to determine the distribution of parabolic or nonparabolic refractive index fields in graded index optical fibers. The fiber is embedded in an index matching fluid whose refractive index can be varied to a matching and mismatching index with respect to that of the cladding. In experiments for both cases high precision phase-shifting digital holographic interferometry is applied with numerical evaluation employing the multilayer model for recognition of the refraction. Due to the higher redundancy in the multiple phase-shifted holograms better accuracy can be obtained compared to classical two-beam interferometry. Therefore the holographic method is recommended as a nondestructive and noncontacting method for characterizing graded index optical fibers.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(060.2270) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber characterization
(090.2880) Holography : Holographic interferometry
(100.2650) Image processing : Fringe analysis
(090.1995) Holography : Digital holography

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: October 27, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: January 25, 2009
Published: March 6, 2009

Citation
Hamdy H. Wahba and Thomas Kreis, "Characterization of graded index optical fibers by digital holographic interferometry," Appl. Opt. 48, 1573-1582 (2009)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-48-8-1573


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. N. Barakat and A. A. Hamza, Interferometry of Fibrous Materials (Hilger, 1990).
  2. G. E. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, 3rd ed. (Wiley, 2002). [CrossRef]
  3. S. Yin, P. B. Ruffin, and F. T. S. Yu, eds., Fiber Optic Sensors, 2nd ed. (CRC, 2008).
  4. R. C. Faust, “An interferometric method of studying local variations in the refractive indices of a solid,” Proc. Phys. Soc., London, Sect. B 65, 48-62 (1952). [CrossRef]
  5. R. C. Faust, “The determination of the refractive indices of inhomogeneous solids by interference microscopy,” Proc. Phys. Soc., London, Sect. B 67, 138-148 (1954). [CrossRef]
  6. M. E. Marhic, P. S. Ho and M. Epstein, “Nondestructive refractive-index profile measurements of clad optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 574-575 (1975). [CrossRef]
  7. M. J. Saunder and W. B. Gardner, “Nondestructive interferometric measurement of the delta and alpha of clad optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 16, 2368-2370 (1977). [CrossRef]
  8. N. Barakat, A. A. Hamza, and A. S. Goneid, “Multiple-beam interference fringes applied to GRIN optical waveguides to determine fiber characteristics,” Appl. Opt. 24, 4383-4386(1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. A. Mabrouk and H. F. El-Bawab, “Refractive index profile of GRIN optical fiber considering the area under the interference fringe shift: I. The matching case,” Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 247-256 (1997). [CrossRef]
  10. T. Z. N. Sokkar, M. A. Mabrouk, and H. F. El-Bawab, “Refractive index profile of GRIN optical fiber considering the area under the interference fringe shift: II. The mismatching case,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 64-72(1999). [CrossRef]
  11. A. A. Hamza, A. M. Ghander, T. Z. N. Sokkar, M. A. Mabrouk, and W. A. Ramadan, “On the determination of the refractive index of a fiber: I. Skin-core fiber,” Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 943-961 (1994). [CrossRef]
  12. A. A. Hamza, T. Z. N. Sokkar, A. M. Ghander, M. A. Mabrouk, and W. A. Ramadan, “On the determination of the refractive index of a fiber. II. Graded index fiber,” Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 161-177 (1995). [CrossRef]
  13. A. A. Hamza, M. A. Mabrouk, W. A. Ramadan, and M. A. Shams-Eldin, “Determination of GRIN optical fiber parameters from transverse interferograms considering the refraction of the incident ray by the fiber,” Opt. Commun. 200, 131-138 (2001). [CrossRef]
  14. A. A. Hamza, M. A. Mabrouk, W. A. Ramadan, and H. H. Wahba, “Coreindex determination of a thick fiber using lens-fiber interference (LFI) technique,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 42, 121-130 (2004). [CrossRef]
  15. T. Z. N. Sokkar, M. A. El-Morsy, and H. H. Wahba, “Automatic fringe analysis of the induced anisotropy of bent optical fibres,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1915-1923 (2008). [CrossRef]
  16. M. A. El-Morsy, T. Yatagai, A. A. Hamza, M. A. Mabrouk, and T. Z. N. Sokkar, “Multiple-beam Fizeau fringe-pattern analysis using Fourier transform method for accurate measurement of fiber refractive index profile of polymer fiber,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 85, 475-484 (2002). [CrossRef]
  17. M. A. El-Morsy, T. Yatagai, A. A. Hamza, M. A. Mabrouk, and T. Z. N. Sokkar, “Automatic refractive index profiling of fibers by phase analysis method using Fourier transform,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 38, 509-525 (2002). [CrossRef]
  18. A. A. Hamza, A. E. Belal, T. Z. N. Sokkar, H. M. El-Dessouky, and M. A. Agour, “Interferometric studies on the infiuence of temperature on the optical and dispersion parameters of GRIN optical fiber,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 45, 145-152(2007). [CrossRef]
  19. D. Gabor, “A new microscopic principle,” Nature 161, 777-778 (1948). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. D. Gabor, “Microscopy by reconstructed wavefronts,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 197, 454-487 (1949). [CrossRef]
  21. D. Gabor, G. W. Stroke, D. Brumm, A. Funkhouser, and A. Labeyrie, “Reconstruction of phase objects by holography,” Nature 208, 1159-1162 (1965). [CrossRef]
  22. R. L. Powell and K. A. Stetson, “Interferometric vibration analysis by wavefront reconstruction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1593-1608 (1965). [CrossRef]
  23. T. Kreis, Holographic Interferometry: Principles and Methods (Akademie-Verlag, 1996).
  24. U. Schnars, “Direct phase determination in hologram interferometry with use of digitally recorded holograms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2011-2015 (1994). [CrossRef]
  25. B. Rappaz, P. Marquet, E. Cuche, Y. Emery, C. Depeursinge, and P. Magistretti, “Measurement of the integral refractive index and dynamic cell morphometry of living cells with digital holographic microscopy,” Opt. Express 13, 9361-9373 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. V. Kebbel, M. Adams, H.-J. Hartmann, and W. Jüptner, “Digital holography as a versatile optical diagnostic method for microgravity experiments,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 893-899 (1999). [CrossRef]
  27. M. de Angelis, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Pierattini, P. Ferraro, S. Pelli, G. Righini, and S. Sebastiani, “Digital-holography refractive-index-profile measurement of phase gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111-114 (2006).
  28. M. M. Hossain, D. S. Mehta, and C. Shakher, “Refractive index determination: an application of lensless Fourier digital holography,” Opt. Eng. 45, 106203 (2006). [CrossRef]
  29. F. Dubois, L. Joannes, O. Dupont, J. L. Dewandel, and J. C. Legros, “An integrated optical set-up for fluid-physics experiments under microgravity conditions,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 934-945 (1999). [CrossRef]
  30. R. B. Owen and A. A. Zozulya, “Comparative study with double-exposure digital holographic interferometry and a Shack-Hartmann sensor to characterize transparent material,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5891-5895 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. E. Cuche, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Simultaneous amplitude-contrast and quantitative phase-contrast microscopy by numerical reconstruction of Fresnel off-axis holograms,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6994-7001 (1999). [CrossRef]
  32. T. Colomb, P. Dahlgren, D. Beghuin, E. Cuche, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Polarization imaging by use of digital holography,” Appl. Opt. 41, 27-37 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. T. Colomb, F. Dürr, E. Cuche, P. Marquet, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salath, and C. Depeursinge, “Polarization microscopy by use of digital holography: application to optical-fiber birefringence measurements,” Appl. Opt. 44, 4461-4469 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. D. W. Sweeney and C. M. Vest, “Reconstruction of three dimensional refractive index fields from multidirectional interferometric data,” Appl. Opt. 12, 2649-2663 (1973). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. S. S. Cha and C. M. Vest, “Tomographic reconstruction of strongly refracting fields and its applications to interferometric measurements of boundary layers,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2787-2794 (1981). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. T. Kreis, “Digital holography for metrologic applications,” in Interferometry in Speckle Light, P. Jacquot and J. -M. Fournier, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2000), pp. 205-212. [CrossRef]
  37. Th. Kreis, Handbook of Holographic Interferometry, Optical and Digital Methods (Wiley-VCH, 2005).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited