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Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 49, Iss. 10 — Apr. 1, 2010
  • pp: 1951–1963

Process parameter effects on material removal in magnetorheological finishing of borosilicate glass

Chunlin Miao, John C. Lambropoulos, and Stephen D. Jacobs  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 49, Issue 10, pp. 1951-1963 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.49.001951


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Abstract

We investigate the effects of processing parameters on material removal for borosilicate glass. Data are collected on a magnetorheological finishing (MRF) spot taking machine (STM) with a standard aqueous magnetorheological (MR) fluid. Normal and shear forces are measured simultaneously, in situ, with a dynamic dual load cell. Shear stress is found to be independent of nanodiamond concentration, penetration depth, magnetic field strength, and the relative velocity between the part and the rotating MR fluid ribbon. Shear stress, determined primarily by the material mechanical properties, dominates removal in MRF. The addition of nanodiamond abrasives greatly enhances the material removal efficiency, with the removal rate saturating at a high abrasive concentration. The volumetric removal rate (VRR) increases with penetration depth but is insensitive to magnetic field strength. The VRR is strongly correlated with the relative velocity between the ribbon and the part, as expected by the Preston equation. A modified removal rate model for MRF offers a better estimation of MRF removal capability by including nanodiamond concentration and penetration depth.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(160.4670) Materials : Optical materials
(220.4610) Optical design and fabrication : Optical fabrication
(220.5450) Optical design and fabrication : Polishing

ToC Category:
Optical Design and Fabrication

History
Original Manuscript: January 19, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: February 28, 2010
Published: March 29, 2010

Citation
Chunlin Miao, John C. Lambropoulos, and Stephen D. Jacobs, "Process parameter effects on material removal in magnetorheological finishing of borosilicate glass," Appl. Opt. 49, 1951-1963 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-49-10-1951


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References

  1. A. B. Shorey, “Mechanisms of material removal in magnetorheological finishing (MRF) of glass,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Rochester, 2000).
  2. J. E. DeGroote, “Surface interactions between nanodiamonds and glass in magnetorheological finishing (MRF),” Ph.D.dissertation (University of Rochester, 2007).
  3. M. Schinhaerl, C. Vogt, A. Geiss, R. Stamp, P. Sperber, L. Smith, G. Smith, and R. Rascher, “Forces acting between polishing tool and workpiece surface in magnetorheological finishing,” Proc. SPIE 7060, 706006 (2008). [CrossRef]
  4. J. Seok, S. O. Lee, K. I. Jang, B. K. Min, and S. J. Lee, “Tribological properties of a magnetorheological (MR) fluid in a finishing process,” Tribol. Trans. 52, 460-469 (2009). [CrossRef]
  5. C. Miao, S. N. Shafrir, J. C. Lambropoulos, J. Mici, and S. D. Jacobs, “Shear stress in magnetorheological finishing for glasses,” Appl. Opt. 48, 2585-2594 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. C. Lambropoulos, F. Yang, and S. D. Jacobs, “Toward a mechanical mechanism for material removal in magnetorheological finishing,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing Workshop (Optical Society of America, 1996), pp. 150-153.
  7. Schott North American, Incorporated, 555 Taxter Road, Elmsford, New York 10523, USA.
  8. Zygo Mark IVxp interferometer, Zygo Corporation, Connecticut, USA. This instrument is a four-inch He-Ne Fizeau interferometer with a wavelength of 632.8 nm. Peak-to-valley surface flatness and ddp of the spot were measured in microns. The spot is expected to be less than 0.2 μm deep for achieving a good measurement, and spotting time was adjusted to stay below this upper limit.
  9. Zygo New View 5000 noncontacting white light interferometer, Zygo Corporation, Connecticut, USA. The surface roughness data were obtained under the following conditions: 20× Mirau; high frequency domain analysis (FDA) Res.; 20 μm bipolar scan length; Min/Mod: 5%, unfiltered.
  10. J. E. DeGroote, A. E. Marino, J. P. Wilson, A. L. Bishop, and S. D. Jacobs, “Removal rate model for magnetorheological finishing of glass,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7927-7941 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. D. Jacobs, “Nanodiamonds enhance removal in magnetorheological finishing,” Finer Points 7, 47-54 (1995).
  12. X. Qu and C. F. J. Wu, “One-factor-at-a-time designs of resolution V,” J. Statist. Plann. Inference 131, 407-416 (2005). [CrossRef]
  13. C. Miao, “Frictional forces in material removal for glasses and ceramics using magnetorheological finishing,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Rochester, 2010).
  14. C. Miao, S. N. Shafrir, H. Romanofsky, J. Mici, J. C. Lambropoulos, and S. D. Jacobs, “Frictional investigation for magnetorheological finishing (MRF) of optical ceramics and hard metals,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing (Optical Society of America, 2008).
  15. Anne Marino, “Magnetic fields in the STM and Q22-Y versus current through electromagnet,” Laboratory for Laser Energetics Magnetorheological Finishing Group internal memo, dated 12 November 2001. The Schinhaerl QED Q22-X MRF machine is similar to the Q22-Y. We use the magnetic field strength values obtained at various magnet currents on the Q22-Y to estimate the magnetic field strength for the Q22-X used in the work of Schinhaerl.
  16. A. J. F. Bombard, M. Knobel, M. R. Alcantara, and I. Joekes, “Evaluation of magnetorheological suspensions based on carbonyl iron powders,” J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct. 13, 471-478 (2002). [CrossRef]
  17. J. R. Welty, C. E. Wicks, R. E. Wilson, and G. Rorrer, “Dynamic pressure of a viscous flow moving at the surface of a solid object increases with the fluid velocity,” in Fundamentals of Momentum, Heat, and Mass Transfer (Wiley, 2001), p. 150.
  18. F. W. Preston, “The theory and design of plate glass polishing machines,” J. Soc. Glass Technol. 11, 214-256 (1927).
  19. U. Mahajan, M. Bielmann, and M. Singh, “Abrasive effects in oxide chemical mechanical polishing,” in Proceedings of the Materials Research Society Symposium (Materials Research Society, 2000), pp. 27-32.
  20. A. B. Shorey, S. D. Jacobs, W. I. Kordonski, and R. F. Gans, “Experiments and observations regarding the mechanisms of glass removal in magnetorheological finshing,” Appl. Opt. 40, 20-33 (2001). [CrossRef]

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