OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 49, Iss. 2 — Jan. 10, 2010
  • pp: 220–228

Information hiding based on binary encoding methods and pixel scrambling techniques

Kuang Tsan Lin  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 49, Issue 2, pp. 220-228 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.49.000220


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1955 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Novel information hiding for digital images based on binary encoding methods and pixel scrambling techniques is presented. First, a pixel scrambling technique is used to rearrange the pixels of a covert image to form a scrambled matrix by using a specified scrambling rule. Then, the gray values of all the pixels in the scrambled matrix are sequentially transformed into many sets of eight-digit binary codes. Subsequently, the eight-digit binary codes are encoded into a host image to form an overt image by using a specific encoding rule. Besides the eight-digit binary codes (information codes), the overt image contains five other groups of binary codes (specification codes), i.e., identification codes, gray-level codes, dimension codes, scrambling number codes, and scrambling time codes, to denote the parameters used for scrambling and encoding. According to the test results, the proposed method performs well. Moreover, the overt image and the host image look almost the same, and the decoded covert image is exactly the same as the original covert image.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(100.0100) Image processing : Image processing
(100.2000) Image processing : Digital image processing
(100.4998) Image processing : Pattern recognition, optical security and encryption

ToC Category:
Image Processing

History
Original Manuscript: September 23, 2009
Revised Manuscript: December 1, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: December 4, 2009
Published: January 7, 2010

Citation
Kuang Tsan Lin, "Information hiding based on binary encoding methods and pixel scrambling techniques," Appl. Opt. 49, 220-228 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-49-2-220


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. Y. L. Yang, N. Cai, and G. Q. Ni, “Digital image scrambling technology based on the symmetry of Arnold transform,” J. Beijing Inst. Technol. 15, 216-220 (2006).
  2. B. Li and J. W. Xu, “Period of Arnold transformation and its application in image scrambling,” J. Cent. South Univ. Technol. 12, 278-282 (2005).
  3. T. Kong and D. Zhang, “A new anti-Arnold transformation algorithm,” J. Software 15, 1558-1564 (2004).
  4. D. Qi, J. Zou, and X. Han, “A new class of scrambling transformation and its application in the image information covering,” Sci. China Ser. E Technol. Sci. 43, 304-312 (2000).
  5. Y. Zhou, S. Agaian, V. M. Joyner, and K. Panetta, “Two Fibonacci p-code based image scrambling algorithms,” Proc. SPIE 6812, 681215 (2008).
  6. O. Lafe, “Data compression and encryption using cellular automata transforms,” Eng. Applic. Artif. Intell. 10, 581-591(1997).
  7. G. Z. Hernández and H. J. Herrmann, “Cellular automata for elementary image enhancement,” Graphical Models Image Process. 58, 82-89 (1996).
  8. C. C. Chang and J. C. Chuang, “An image intellectual property protection scheme for gray-level images using visual secret sharing strategy,” Pattern Recognit. Lett. 23, 931-941 (2002). [CrossRef]
  9. H. Zhang, J. Huang, and Z. Li, “New method of digital image scrambling based on binary tree generated by chaotic sequences,” Proc. SPIE 6790, 67905D (2007).
  10. R. Ye and H. Li, “A novel image scrambling and watermarking scheme based on cellular automata,” in 2008 International Symposium on Electronic Commerce and Security (2008), pp. 938-941.
  11. B. Hennelly and J. T. Sheridan, “Optical image encryption by random shifting in fraction Fourier domains,” Opt. Lett. 28, 269-271 (2003). [CrossRef]
  12. J. Zhao, H. Lu, X. Song, J. Li, and Y. Ma, “Optical image encryption based on multistage fractional Fourier transforms and pixel scrambling technique,” Opt. Commun. 249, 493-499(2005). [CrossRef]
  13. J. Zhao, H. Lu, and Q. Fan, “Color image encryption based on fractional Fourier transforms and pixel scrambling technique,” Proc. SPIE 6279, 62793B (2007).
  14. X. F. Meng, L. Z. Cai, X. L. Yang, X. X. Shen, and G. Y. Dong, “Information security system by iterative multiple-phase retrieval and pixel random permutation,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3289 (2006). [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Y. Wang, Y. R. Wang, Y. Wang, H. J. Li, and W. J. Sun, “Optical image encryption based on binary Fourier transform computer-generated hologram and pixel scrambling technology,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 45, 761-765 (2007). [CrossRef]
  16. Q. Liu and X. Zhang, “Secure 3D watermarking algorithm based on point set projection,” Proc. SPIE-Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 6790, 67904R (2007).
  17. H. Lu, J. Zhao, Q. Fan, Y. Xu, and X. Wan, “Iterative double random phase encryption based on pixel scrambling technology,” Acta Photonica Sin. 34, 1069-1073 (2005).
  18. K. T. Lin, “Digital information encrypted in an image using binary encoding,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3447-3453(2008). [CrossRef]
  19. S. L. Yeh, “Dot-matrix hologram with an encrypted figure,” Opt. Eng. 45, 095801 (2006).
  20. X. Y. Yu, H. E. Ren, S. Li, and X. D. Zhang, “A new measurement method of image encryption,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 48, 408-411 (2006). [CrossRef]
  21. M. Kutter and F. A. P. Petitcolas, “A fair benchmark for image watermarking systems,” Proc. SPIE 3657, 226-239(1999). [CrossRef]
  22. T. K. Shih, L. C. Lu, and R. C. Chang, “An automatic image in paint tool,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh ACM International Conference on Multimedia, (Association for Computing Machinery, 2003), pp. 102-103.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited