OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 49, Iss. 26 — Sep. 10, 2010
  • pp: 4898–4905

Cryogenic fluid level sensors multiplexed by frequency-shifted interferometry

Fei Ye, Tong Chen, Di Xu, Kevin P. Chen, Bing Qi, and Li Qian  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 49, Issue 26, pp. 4898-4905 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.49.004898


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (691 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We present a liquid level sensing system for cryogenic fluids based on an array of aluminum-coated fiber Bragg gratings written in high-attenuation fibers (HAFs) interrogated by frequency-shifted interferometry (FSI). The sensors are heated up optically through the absorption of light at the core of the HAF sections. The distinct thermal response of sensors in the liquid from that in the gas provides an unambiguous means to detect the liquid level. FSI allows the sensors to have overlapped spectral response, and, therefore, has the potential of accommodating a larger number of sensors in the array. The measurement of liquid nitrogen level using this system was experimentally demonstrated. The successful combination of aluminum-coated HAF Bragg grating sensors and the FSI technique promises a viable solution for liquid level sensor networks at cryogenic temperatures.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(060.2370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics sensors
(060.4230) Fiber optics and optical communications : Multiplexing
(120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry
(060.3735) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber Bragg gratings

ToC Category:
Interferometry

History
Original Manuscript: March 15, 2010
Revised Manuscript: June 30, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: July 23, 2010
Published: September 3, 2010

Citation
Fei Ye, Tong Chen, Di Xu, Kevin P. Chen, Bing Qi, and Li Qian, "Cryogenic fluid level sensors multiplexed by frequency-shifted interferometry," Appl. Opt. 49, 4898-4905 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-49-26-4898


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. B. W. Northway, N. H. Hancock, and T. Tran-Cong, “Liquid level sensors using thin walled cylinders vibrating in circumferential modes,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 85–93 (1995). [CrossRef]
  2. D. K. Hilton, J. S. Panek, M. R. Smith, and S. W. Van Sciver, “A capacitive liquid helium level sensor instrument,” Cryogenics 39, 485–487 (1999). [CrossRef]
  3. R. Osborne, M. Ward, and K. Dawkins, “A micro-machined acoustic sensor array for fuel level indication,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 115, 385–391 (2004). [CrossRef]
  4. V. E. Sakharov, S. A. Kuznetsov, B. D. Zaitsev, I. E. Kuznetsova, and S. G. Joshi, “Liquid level sensor using ultrasonic Lamb waves,” Ultrasonics 41, 319–322 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. P. Yakymyshyn and C. R. Pollock, “Differential absorption fiber-optic liquid level sensor,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 941–946 (1987). [CrossRef]
  6. C. Vázquez, A. B. Gonzalo, S. Vargas, and J. Montalvo, “Multi-sensor system using plastic optical fibers for intrinsically safe level measurements,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 116, 22–32(2004). [CrossRef]
  7. T. Guo, Q. Zhao, Q. Dou, H. Zhang, L. Xue, G. Huang, and X. Dong, “Temperature-insensitive fiber Bragg grating liquid-level sensor based on bending cantilever beam,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 2400–2402 (2005). [CrossRef]
  8. T. Lü, Z. Li, D. Xia, K. He, and G. Zhang, “Asymmetric Fabry-Perot cavity fiber-optic pressure sensor for liquid-level measurement,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 033104 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Wang, M. F. Gunther, K. A. Murphy, and R. O. Claus, “Fiber-optic liquid-level sensor,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 35, 161–164 (1992). [CrossRef]
  10. P. Raatikainen, I. Kassamakov, R. Kakanakov, and M. Luukkala, “Fiber-optic liquid-level sensor,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 58, 93–97 (1997). [CrossRef]
  11. K. E. Romo-Medrano and S. N. Khotiaintsev, “An optical-fibre refractometric liquid-level sensor for liquid nitrogen,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 998–1004 (2006). [CrossRef]
  12. A. A. Kazemi, C. Yang, and S. Chen, “Fiber optic cryogenic liquid level detection system for space applications,” Proc. SPIE 7314, 73140A (2009). [CrossRef]
  13. S. Khaliq, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, “Fiber-optic liquid-level sensor using a long-period grating,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1224–1226 (2001). [CrossRef]
  14. B. Yun, N. Chen, and Y. Cui, “Highly sensitive liquid-level sensor based on etched fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 1747–1749 (2007). [CrossRef]
  15. S. M. Chandani and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Optical fiber-based liquid level sensor,” Opt. Eng. 46, 114401 (2007). [CrossRef]
  16. M. Lomer, J. Arrue, C. Jauregui, P. Aiestaran, J. Zubia, and J. M. López-Higuera, “Lateral polishing of bends in plastic optical fibres applied to a multipoint liquid-level measurement sensor,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 137, 68–73(2007). [CrossRef]
  17. R. S. Weis, A. D. Kersey, and T. A. Berkoff, “A four-element fiber grating sensor array with phase-sensitive detection,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 1469–1472 (1994). [CrossRef]
  18. S. Abad, M. López-Amo, F. M. Araújo, L. A. Ferreira, and J. L. Santos, “Fiber Bragg grating-based self-referencing technique for wavelength-multiplexed intensity sensors,” Opt. Lett. 27, 222–224 (2002). [CrossRef]
  19. G. A. Cranch and P. J. Nash, “Large-scale multiplexing of interferometric fiber-optic sensors using TDM and DWDM,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 687–699 (2001). [CrossRef]
  20. F. Ye, L. Qian, Y. Liu, and B. Qi, “Using frequency-shifted interferometry for multiplexing a fiber Bragg grating array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1488–1490 (2008). [CrossRef]
  21. F. Ye, L. Qian, and B. Qi, “Multipoint chemical gas sensing using frequency-shifted interferometry,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 2449 (2009). [CrossRef]
  22. K. P. Chen, L. J. Cashdollar, and W. Xu, “Controlling fiber Bragg grating spectra with in-fiber diode laser light,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1897–1899 (2004). [CrossRef]
  23. K. P. Chen, B. McMillen, M. Buric, C. Jewart, and W. Xu, “Self-heated fiber Bragg grating sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 143502 (2005). [CrossRef]
  24. M. Buric, K. P. Chen, M. Bhattarai, P. R. Swinehart, and M. Maklad, “Active fiber Bragg grating hydrogen sensors for all-temperature operation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 255–257 (2007). [CrossRef]
  25. A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442–1463 (1997). [CrossRef]
  26. T. Chen, M. P. Buric, K. P. Chen, P. R. Swinehart, and M. Maklad, “Active fiber hydrogen sensors for low-temperature operation,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (OSA, 2009), paper CThE4.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited