OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 50, Iss. 11 — Apr. 10, 2011
  • pp: 1560–1569

Performance improvement and analysis of a 1. 6 μm continuous-wave modulation laser absorption spectrometer system for CO 2 sensing

Shumpei Kameyama, Masaharu Imaki, Yoshihito Hirano, Shinichi Ueno, Shuji Kawakami, Daisuke Sakaizawa, and Masakatsu Nakajima  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 50, Issue 11, pp. 1560-1569 (2011)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1497 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



In a previous study, we developed a 1. 6 μm continuous-wave (cw) modulation laser absorption spectrometer system for CO 2 sensing and demonstrated the measurement of small fluctuations in CO 2 corresponding to a precision of 4 parts per million (ppm) with a measurement interval of 32 s . In this paper, we present the process to achieve this highly specific measurement by introducing important points, which have not been shown in the previous study. Following the results of preliminary experiments, we added a function for speckle averaging on the optical antenna unit. We additionally came up with some ideas to avoid the influences of etalon effects and polarization dependence in optical components. Because of the new functions, we realized a calibration precision of 0.006 dB (rms), which corresponds to a CO 2 concentration precision of less than 1 ppm for a 2 km path. We also analyzed the CO 2 sensing performance after the improvements described above. The measured short time fluctuation of the differential absorption optical depth was reasonably close to that calculated using the carrier-to-noise ratio of the received signal.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.3640) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Lidar
(280.3640) Remote sensing and sensors : Lidar

ToC Category:
Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

Original Manuscript: September 13, 2010
Revised Manuscript: November 12, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: December 11, 2010
Published: April 5, 2011

Shumpei Kameyama, Masaharu Imaki, Yoshihito Hirano, Shinichi Ueno, Shuji Kawakami, Daisuke Sakaizawa, and Masakatsu Nakajima, "Performance improvement and analysis of a 1.6 μm continuous-wave modulation laser absorption spectrometer system for CO2 sensing," Appl. Opt. 50, 1560-1569 (2011)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. Caron and Y. Durand, “Operating wavelength optimization for a spaceborne lidar measuring atmospheric CO2,” Appl. Opt. 48, 5413–5422 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. Bruneau, F. Gibert, P. H. Flamant, and J. Pelon, “Complementary study of differential absorption lidar optimization in direct and heterodyne detections,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4898–4908(2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. F. Gibert, M. Schmidt, J. Cuesta, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, I. Xueref, E. Larmanou, and P. H. Flamant, “Retrieval of average CO2 fluxes by combining in situ CO2 measurements and backscatter lidar information,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10301(2007). [CrossRef]
  4. F. Gibert, P. H. Flamant, D. Bruneau, and C. Loth, “Two-micrometer heterodyne differential absorption lidar measurements of the atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio in the boundary layer,” Appl. Opt. 47, 944–956 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Amediek, A. Fix, M. Wirth, and G. Ehret, “Development of an OPO system at 1.57 μm for integrated path DIAL measurement of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 295–302 (2008). [CrossRef]
  6. G. Eheret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 593–608 (2008). [CrossRef]
  7. G. J. Koch, B. W. Barns, M. Petros, J. Y. Beyon, F. Amzajerdian, J. Yu, R. E. Davis, S. Ismail, S. Vay, M. J. Kavaya, and U. N. Singh, “Coherent differential absorption lidar measurements of CO2,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5092–5099 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. J. Koch, J. Y. Beyon, F. Gibert, B. W. Barns, S. Ismail, M. Petros, P. J. Petzar, J. Yu, E. A. Modlin, K. J. Davis, and U. N. Singh, “Side-line tunable laser transmitter for differential absorption lidar measurements of CO2: design and application to atmospheric measurements,” Appl. Opt. 47, 944–956 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. T. Menzies and D. M. Tratt, “Differential laser absorption spectrometry for global profiling of tropospheric carbon dioxide: selection of optimum sounding frequencies for high-precision measurements,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6569–6577 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. D. Spiers, S. Geier, M. W. Phillips, and R. T. Menzies, “The JPL carbon dioxide laser absorption spectrometer,” Proceedings of the International Laser Radar Conference (2006), pp. 1031–1032.
  11. S. Kameyama and Y. Hirano, “Differential absorption lidar apparatus having multiplexed light signals with two wavelengths in a predetermined beam size and beam shape,” U. S. patent 7,361,922 (22 April 2008).
  12. S. Kameyama, M. Imaki, Y. Hirano, S. Ueno, D. Sakaizawa, S. Kawakami, and M. Nakajima, “Development of 1.6 μmcontinuous-wave modulation hard-target differential absorption lidar system for CO2 sensing,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1513–1515(2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. P. Drobinski, P. H. Flamant, and P. Salamitou, “Spectral diversity technique for heterodyne Doppler lidar that uses hard target returns,” Appl. Opt. 39, 376–385 (2000). [CrossRef]
  14. K. D. Ridney, G. N. Pearson, and M. Harris, “Improved speckle statics in coherent differential absorption lidar with in-fiber wavelength multiplexing,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2017–2023 (2001). [CrossRef]
  15. D. Sakaizawa, S. Kawakami, M. Nakajima, Y. Sawa, H. Matsueda, K. Asai, S. Kameyama, M. Imaki, Y. Hirano, and S. Ueno, “Path-averaged atmospheric CO2 measurement using a 1.57 μm active remote sensor compared with multi-positioned in situ sensors,” Proc. SPIE 7460, 740006 (2009). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited